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Molecules 2015, 20(7), 11930-11940; doi:10.3390/molecules200711930

Protective Effects of Dihydrocaffeic Acid, a Coffee Component Metabolite, on a Focal Cerebral Ischemia Rat Model

College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701, Korea
These authors are contributed equally to this work.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 25 May 2015 / Revised: 19 June 2015 / Accepted: 24 June 2015 / Published: 30 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract

We recently reported the protective effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) in a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo) rat model. The current study further investigated the protective effects of the metabolites of CGA and dihydrocaffeic acid (DHCA) was selected for further study after screening using the same tMCAo rat model. In the current study, tMCAo rats (2 h of MCAo followed by 22 h of reperfusion) were injected with various doses of DHCA at 0 and 2 h after onset of ischemia. We assessed brain damage, functional deficits, brain edema, and blood-brain barrier damage at 24 h after ischemia. For investigating the mechanism, in vitro zymography and western blotting analysis were performed to determine the expression and activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9. DHCA (3, 10, and 30 mg/kg, i.p.) dose-dependently reduced brain infarct volume, behavioral deficits, brain water content, and Evans Blue (EB) leakage. DHCA inhibited expression and activation of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Therefore, DHCA might be one of the important metabolites of CGA and of natural products, including coffee, with protective effects on ischemia-induced neuronal damage and brain edema. View Full-Text
Keywords: dihydrocaffeic acid; cerebral ischemia; brain edema; blood brain barrier; matrix metalloproteinase dihydrocaffeic acid; cerebral ischemia; brain edema; blood brain barrier; matrix metalloproteinase
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, K.; Lee, B.-J.; Bu, Y. Protective Effects of Dihydrocaffeic Acid, a Coffee Component Metabolite, on a Focal Cerebral Ischemia Rat Model. Molecules 2015, 20, 11930-11940.

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