Advances and Recent Trends in Heterogeneous Photo(Electro)-Catalysis for Solar Fuels and Chemicals
AbstractIn the context of a future renewable energy system based on hydrogen storage as energy-dense liquid alcohols co-synthesized from recycled CO2, this article reviews advances in photocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis that exploit solar (photonic) primary energy in relevant endergonic processes, viz., H2 generation by water splitting, bio-oxygenate photoreforming, and artificial photosynthesis (CO2 reduction). Attainment of the efficiency (>10%) mandated for viable techno-economics (USD 2.00–4.00 per kg H2) and implementation on a global scale hinges on the development of photo(electro)catalysts and co-catalysts composed of earth-abundant elements offering visible-light-driven charge separation and surface redox chemistry in high quantum yield, while retaining the chemical and photo-stability typical of titanium dioxide, a ubiquitous oxide semiconductor and performance “benchmark”. The dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cell and multi-junction Si are key “voltage-biasing” components in hybrid photovoltaic/photoelectrochemical (PV/PEC) devices that currently lead the field in performance. Prospects and limitations of visible-absorbing particulates, e.g., nanotextured crystalline α-Fe2O3, g-C3N4, and TiO2 sensitized by C/N-based dopants, multilayer composites, and plasmonic metals, are also considered. An interesting trend in water splitting is towards hydrogen peroxide as a solar fuel and value-added green reagent. Fundamental and technical hurdles impeding the advance towards pre-commercial solar fuels demonstration units are considered. View Full-Text
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Highfield, J. Advances and Recent Trends in Heterogeneous Photo(Electro)-Catalysis for Solar Fuels and Chemicals. Molecules 2015, 20, 6739-6793.
Highfield J. Advances and Recent Trends in Heterogeneous Photo(Electro)-Catalysis for Solar Fuels and Chemicals. Molecules. 2015; 20(4):6739-6793.Chicago/Turabian Style
Highfield, James. 2015. "Advances and Recent Trends in Heterogeneous Photo(Electro)-Catalysis for Solar Fuels and Chemicals." Molecules 20, no. 4: 6739-6793.