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Molecules 2015, 20(4), 5908-5923; doi:10.3390/molecules20045908

Enhanced Materials from Nature: Nanocellulose from Citrus Waste

1
Chemical Biology Laboratory, Institute of Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Department, State University of Campinas, P.O. Box 6154, Campinas 13083-970, Brazil
2
Chemical Biology Laboratory, Institute of Chemistry, Physical-Chemistry Department, State University of Campinas, P.O. Box 6154, Campinas 13083-970, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 13 November 2014 / Revised: 4 March 2015 / Accepted: 27 March 2015 / Published: 3 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Cellulose and Chitin Chemistry)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3186 KB, uploaded 3 April 2015]   |  

Abstract

Nanocellulose is a relatively inexpensive, highly versatile bio-based renewable material with advantageous properties, including biodegradability and nontoxicity. Numerous potential applications of nanocellulose, such as its use for the preparation of high-performance composites, have attracted much attention from industry. Owing to the low energy consumption and the addition of significant value, nanocellulose extraction from agricultural waste is one of the best alternatives for waste treatment. Different techniques for the isolation and purification of nanocellulose have been reported, and combining these techniques influences the morphology of the resultant fibers. Herein, some of the extraction routes for obtaining nanocellulose from citrus waste are addressed. The morphology of nanocellulose was determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), while cellulose crystallinity indexes (CI) from lyophilized samples were determined using solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) measurements. The resultant nanofibers had 55% crystallinity, an average diameter of 10 nm and a length of 458 nm. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanocellulose; citrus waste; enzymatic hydrolysis; Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri; cellulose crystallinity index; nuclear magnetic resonance nanocellulose; citrus waste; enzymatic hydrolysis; Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri; cellulose crystallinity index; nuclear magnetic resonance
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mariño, M.; Lopes da Silva, L.; Durán, N.; Tasic, L. Enhanced Materials from Nature: Nanocellulose from Citrus Waste. Molecules 2015, 20, 5908-5923.

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