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Molecules 2015, 20(12), 21421-21432; doi:10.3390/molecules201219779

Accurate Mass GC/LC-Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols of Spicy Fruits from the Apiaceae Family

1
Department of Chemistry, Texas Southern University, Houston, TX 77004, USA
2
Agilent Technologies, Inc., 3750 Brookside Parkway, Suite 100, Alpharetta, GA 30022, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 3 October 2015 / Revised: 23 November 2015 / Accepted: 26 November 2015 / Published: 2 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [6747 KB, uploaded 2 December 2015]   |  

Abstract

The triacylglycerol (TAG) structure and the regio-stereospecific distribution of fatty acids (FA) of seed oils from most of the Apiaceae family are not well documented. The TAG structure ultimately determines the final physical properties of the oils and the position of FAs in the TAG molecule affects the digestion; absorption and metabolism; and physical and technological properties of TAGs. Fixed oils from the fruits of dill (Anethum graveolens), caraway (Carum carvi), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), anise (Pimpinella anisum), carrot (Daucus carota), celery (Apium graveolens), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), and Khella (Ammi visnaga), all from the Apiaceae family, were extracted at room temperature in chloroform/methanol (2:1 v/v) using percolators. Crude lipids were fractionated by solid phase extraction to separate neutral triacylglycerols (TAGs) from other lipids components. Neutral TAGs were subjected to transesterification process to convert them to their corresponding fatty acids methyl esters (FAMES) using 1% boron trifluoride (BF3) in methanol. FAMES were analyzed by gas chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (GC-QTOF) mass spectrometry. Triglycerides were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (LC-QTOF) mass spectrometry. Petroselinic acid was the major fatty acid in all samples ranging from 57% of the total fatty acids in caraway up to 82% in fennel. All samples contained palmitic (16:0), palmitoleic (C16:1n-9), stearic (C18:0), petroselinic (C18:1n-12), linoleic (C18:2n-6), linolinic (18:3n-3), and arachidic (C20:0) acids. TAG were analyzed using LC-QTOF for accurate mass identification and mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS) techniques for regiospesific elucidation of the identified TAGs. Five major TAGs were detected in all samples but with different relative concentrations in all of the tested samples. Several other TAGs were detected as minor components and were present in some samples and absence in the others. Regiospecific analysis showed a non-random fatty acids distribution. Petroselinic acid was predominantly located at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions. View Full-Text
Keywords: seed oil; petroselinic acid; regiospecific; lipids; QTOF seed oil; petroselinic acid; regiospecific; lipids; QTOF
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Nguyen, T.; Aparicio, M.; Saleh, M.A. Accurate Mass GC/LC-Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols of Spicy Fruits from the Apiaceae Family. Molecules 2015, 20, 21421-21432.

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