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Molecules 2015, 20(11), 20448-20459; doi:10.3390/molecules201119708

Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa L.) Peel Using Response Surface Methodology

1
Department of Clinical Nutrition, Nanshan Hospital, Shenzhen 518052, China
2
Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food, Nutrition and Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 30 September 2015 / Revised: 4 November 2015 / Accepted: 9 November 2015 / Published: 17 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1414 KB, uploaded 17 November 2015]   |  

Abstract

Sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.) is a popular tropical fruit and its peel is a municipal waste. An ultrasound-assisted extraction method was developed for the recovery of natural antioxidants from sugar apple peel. Central composite design was used to optimize solvent concentration (13.2%–46.8%), ultrasonic time (33.2–66.8 min), and temperature (43.2–76.8 °C) for the recovery of natural antioxidants from sugar apple peel. The second-order polynomial models demonstrated a good fit of the quadratic models with the experimental results in respect to total phenolic content (TPC, R2 = 0.9524, p < 0.0001), FRAP (R2 = 0.9743, p < 0.0001), and TEAC (R2 = 0.9610, p < 0.0001) values. The optimal extraction conditions were 20:1 (mL/g) of solvent-to-solid ratio, 32.68% acetone, and 67.23 °C for 42.54 min under ultrasonic irradiation. Under these conditions, the maximal yield of total phenolic content was 26.81 (mg GA/g FW). The experimental results obtained under optimal conditions agreed well with the predicted results. The application of ultrasound markedly decreased extraction time and improved the extraction efficiency, compared with the conventional methods. View Full-Text
Keywords: sugar apple peel; antioxidant; ultrasound-assisted extraction; response surface methodology sugar apple peel; antioxidant; ultrasound-assisted extraction; response surface methodology
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Deng, G.-F.; Xu, D.-P.; Li, S.; Li, H.-B. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa L.) Peel Using Response Surface Methodology. Molecules 2015, 20, 20448-20459.

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