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Molecules 2015, 20(11), 19764-19774; doi:10.3390/molecules201119656

Optimization of Extraction Condition of Bee Pollen Using Response Surface Methodology: Correlation between Anti-Melanogenesis, Antioxidant Activity, and Phenolic Content

1
College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 28644, Korea
2
National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration, Jeonju, Chonbuk 54875, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 8 September 2015 / Revised: 19 October 2015 / Accepted: 20 October 2015 / Published: 2 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1057 KB, uploaded 2 November 2015]   |  

Abstract

Bee pollen is flower pollen with nectar and salivary substances of bees and rich in essential components. Bee pollen showed antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activity in our assay system. To maximize the antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of bee pollen, extraction conditions, such as extraction solvent, extraction time, and extraction temperature, were optimized using response surface methodology. Regression analysis showed a good fit of this model and yielded the second-order polynomial regression for tyrosinase inhibition and antioxidant activity. Among the extraction variables, extraction solvent greatly affected the activity. The optimal condition was determined as EtOAc concentration in MeOH, 69.6%; temperature, 10.0 °C; and extraction time, 24.2 h, and the tyrosinase inhibitory and antioxidant activity under optimal condition were found to be 57.9% and 49.3%, respectively. Further analysis showed the close correlation between activities and phenolic content, which suggested phenolic compounds are active constituents of bee pollen for tyrosinase inhibition and antioxidant activity. Taken together, these results provide useful information about bee pollen as cosmetic therapeutics to reduce oxidative stress and hyperpigmentation. View Full-Text
Keywords: bee pollen; oxidative stress; melanogenesis; optimization; phenolic content; response surface methodology bee pollen; oxidative stress; melanogenesis; optimization; phenolic content; response surface methodology
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, S.B.; Jo, Y.H.; Liu, Q.; Ahn, J.H.; Hong, I.P.; Han, S.M.; Hwang, B.Y.; Lee, M.K. Optimization of Extraction Condition of Bee Pollen Using Response Surface Methodology: Correlation between Anti-Melanogenesis, Antioxidant Activity, and Phenolic Content. Molecules 2015, 20, 19764-19774.

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