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Molecules 2015, 20(10), 18047-18065; doi:10.3390/molecules201018047

Metabolic Profiling of Alpine and Ecuadorian Lichens

1
Lehrstuhl für Biochemie, Technische Universität München, Lichtenberg-Str. 4, D-85747 Garching, Germany
2
Departamento de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja, San Cayetano Alto s/n, C.P. 11 01 608 Loja, Ecuador
3
Department of Lichenology and Bryology, Botanische Staatssammlung München, Menzinger Str. 67, D-80638 München, Germany
4
GeoBio-Center, Ludwig-Maximilians Universität München, Richard-Wagner-Str. 10, D-80333 München, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 14 August 2015 / Revised: 22 September 2015 / Accepted: 24 September 2015 / Published: 1 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract

Non-targeted 1H-NMR methods were used to determine metabolite profiles from crude extracts of Alpine and Ecuadorian lichens collected from their natural habitats. In control experiments, the robustness of metabolite detection and quantification was estimated using replicate measurements of Stereocaulon alpinum extracts. The deviations in the overall metabolite fingerprints were low when analyzing S. alpinum collections from different locations or during different annual and seasonal periods. In contrast, metabolite profiles observed from extracts of different Alpine and Ecuadorian lichens clearly revealed genus- and species-specific profiles. The discriminating functions determining cluster formation in principle component analysis (PCA) were due to differences in the amounts of genus-specific compounds such as sticticin from the Sticta species, but also in the amounts of ubiquitous metabolites, such as sugar alcohols or trehalose. However, varying concentrations of these metabolites from the same lichen species e.g., due to different environmental conditions appeared of minor relevance for the overall cluster formation in PCA. The metabolic clusters matched phylogenetic analyses using nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of lichen mycobionts, as exemplified for the genus Sticta. It can be concluded that NMR-based non-targeted metabolic profiling is a useful tool in the chemo-taxonomy of lichens. The same approach could also facilitate the discovery of novel lichen metabolites on a rapid and systematical basis. View Full-Text
Keywords: metabolomics; principle component analysis; chemotaxonomy; Sticta; Stereocaulon; sticticin metabolomics; principle component analysis; chemotaxonomy; Sticta; Stereocaulon; sticticin
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mittermeier, V.K.; Schmitt, N.; Volk, L.P.M.; Suárez, J.P.; Beck, A.; Eisenreich, W. Metabolic Profiling of Alpine and Ecuadorian Lichens. Molecules 2015, 20, 18047-18065.

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