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Molecules 2014, 19(7), 9478-9501; doi:10.3390/molecules19079478

Tanacetum polycephalum (L.) Schultz-Bip. Induces Mitochondrial-Mediated Apoptosis and Inhibits Migration and Invasion in MCF7 Cells

1
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
2
Medical Research Centre, Jazan University, Jazan 2092, Saudi Arabia
3
Biomolecular Research Group, Biochemistry Program, Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
4
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 May 2014 / Revised: 6 June 2014 / Accepted: 23 June 2014 / Published: 3 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Abstract

Tanacetum polycephalum (L.) Schultz-Bip (Mokhaleseh) has been traditionally used in the treatment of headaches, migraines, hyperlipidemia and diabetes. The present study aimed to evaluate its anticancer properties and possible mechanism of action using MCF7 as an in vitro model. T. polycephalum leaves were extracted using hexane, chloroform and methanol solvents and the cytotoxicity was evaluated using the MTT assay. Detection of the early apoptotic cells was investigated using acridine orange/propidium iodide staining. An Annexin-V-FITC assay was carried out to observe the phosphatidylserine externalization as a marker for apoptotic cells. High content screening was applied to analyze the cell membrane permeability, nuclear condensation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and cytochrome c release. Apoptosis was confirmed by using caspase-8, caspase-9 and DNA laddering assays. In addition, Bax/Bcl-2 expressions and cell cycle arrest also have been investigated. MTT assay revealed significant cytotoxicity of T. Polycephalum hexane extract (TPHE) on MCF7 cells with the IC50 value of 6.42 ± 0.35 µg/mL. Significant increase in chromatin condensation was also observed via fluorescence analysis. Treatment of MCF7 cells with TPHE encouraged apoptosis through reduction of MMP by down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax, triggering the cytochrome c leakage from mitochondria to the cytosol. The treated MCF7 cells significantly arrested at G1 phase. The chromatographic analysis elicited that the major active compound in this extract is 8β-hydroxy-4β,15-dihydrozaluzanin C. Taken together, the results presented in this study demonstrated that the hexane extract of T. Polycephalum inhibits the proliferation of MCF7 cells, resulting in the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, which was explained to be through the mitochondrial pathway. View Full-Text
Keywords: Tanacetum polycephalum; breast cancer; apoptosis; MCF7 cell line; cell cycle; Bax/Bcl-2; immunofluorescent; RT-PCR Tanacetum polycephalum; breast cancer; apoptosis; MCF7 cell line; cell cycle; Bax/Bcl-2; immunofluorescent; RT-PCR
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MDPI and ACS Style

Karimian, H.; Mohan, S.; Moghadamtousi, S.Z.; Fadaeinasab, M.; Razavi, M.; Arya, A.; Kamalidehghan, B.; Ali, H.M.; Noordin, M.I. Tanacetum polycephalum (L.) Schultz-Bip. Induces Mitochondrial-Mediated Apoptosis and Inhibits Migration and Invasion in MCF7 Cells. Molecules 2014, 19, 9478-9501.

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