Abstract: We aimed to investigate the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of the anthocyanin rich extract of grape skin. Grape skin anthocyanin (GSA) neutralized free radicals in different test systems, such as 2,-2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, to form complexes with Fe2+ preventing 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced erythrocyte hemolysis and oxidative DNA damage. Moreover, GSA decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in isolated mitochondria thus inhibiting 2',-7'-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH) oxidation. In an in vivo study, female BALB/c mice were administered GSA, at 12.5, 25, and 50 mg per kg per day orally for 30 consecutive days. Herein, we demonstrate that GSA administration significantly elevated the level of antioxidant enzymes in mice sera, livers, and brains. Furthermore, GSA inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the in vitro assay with an IC50 value of 363.61 µg/mL. Therefore, GSA could be an excellent source of antioxidants and its inhibition of cholinesterase is of interest with regard to neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease.
Keywords: anthocyanin; antioxidant; free radicals; DNA damage; mitochondria; antioxidant enzyme activity
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Pervin, M.; Hasnat, M.A.; Lee, Y.M.; Kim, D.H.; Jo, J.E.; Lim, B.O. Antioxidant Activity and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition of Grape Skin Anthocyanin (GSA). Molecules 2014, 19, 9403-9418.
Pervin M, Hasnat MA, Lee YM, Kim DH, Jo JE, Lim BO. Antioxidant Activity and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition of Grape Skin Anthocyanin (GSA). Molecules. 2014; 19(7):9403-9418.
Pervin, Mehnaz; Hasnat, Md. A.; Lee, Yoon M.; Kim, Da H.; Jo, Jeong E.; Lim, Beong O. 2014. "Antioxidant Activity and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition of Grape Skin Anthocyanin (GSA)." Molecules 19, no. 7: 9403-9418.