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Molecules 2014, 19(7), 9403-9418; doi:10.3390/molecules19079403
Article

Antioxidant Activity and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition of Grape Skin Anthocyanin (GSA)

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Received: 25 April 2014; in revised form: 18 June 2014 / Accepted: 28 June 2014 / Published: 3 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthocyanins)
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Abstract: We aimed to investigate the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of the anthocyanin rich extract of grape skin. Grape skin anthocyanin (GSA) neutralized free radicals in different test systems, such as 2,-2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, to form complexes with Fe2+ preventing 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced erythrocyte hemolysis and oxidative DNA damage. Moreover, GSA decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in isolated mitochondria thus inhibiting 2',-7'-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH) oxidation. In an in vivo study, female BALB/c mice were administered GSA, at 12.5, 25, and 50 mg per kg per day orally for 30 consecutive days. Herein, we demonstrate that GSA administration significantly elevated the level of antioxidant enzymes in mice sera, livers, and brains. Furthermore, GSA inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the in vitro assay with an IC50 value of 363.61 µg/mL. Therefore, GSA could be an excellent source of antioxidants and its inhibition of cholinesterase is of interest with regard to neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease.
Keywords: anthocyanin; antioxidant; free radicals; DNA damage; mitochondria; antioxidant enzyme activity anthocyanin; antioxidant; free radicals; DNA damage; mitochondria; antioxidant enzyme activity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pervin, M.; Hasnat, M.A.; Lee, Y.M.; Kim, D.H.; Jo, J.E.; Lim, B.O. Antioxidant Activity and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition of Grape Skin Anthocyanin (GSA). Molecules 2014, 19, 9403-9418.

AMA Style

Pervin M, Hasnat MA, Lee YM, Kim DH, Jo JE, Lim BO. Antioxidant Activity and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition of Grape Skin Anthocyanin (GSA). Molecules. 2014; 19(7):9403-9418.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pervin, Mehnaz; Hasnat, Md. A.; Lee, Yoon M.; Kim, Da H.; Jo, Jeong E.; Lim, Beong O. 2014. "Antioxidant Activity and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition of Grape Skin Anthocyanin (GSA)." Molecules 19, no. 7: 9403-9418.



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