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Molecules 2014, 19(7), 10320-10349; doi:10.3390/molecules190710320

Microextraction Techniques Coupled to Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry for the Determination of Organic Micropollutants in Environmental Water Samples

Departamento de Química, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35017, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
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Received: 13 May 2014 / Revised: 2 July 2014 / Accepted: 10 July 2014 / Published: 16 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microextraction)
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Abstract

Until recently, sample preparation was carried out using traditional techniques, such as liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), that use large volumes of organic solvents. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) uses much less solvent than LLE, although the volume can still be significant. These preparation methods are expensive, time-consuming and environmentally unfriendly. Recently, a great effort has been made to develop new analytical methodologies able to perform direct analyses using miniaturised equipment, thereby achieving high enrichment factors, minimising solvent consumption and reducing waste. These microextraction techniques improve the performance during sample preparation, particularly in complex water environmental samples, such as wastewaters, surface and ground waters, tap waters, sea and river waters. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and time-of-flight mass spectrometric (TOF/MS) techniques can be used when analysing a broad range of organic micropollutants. Before separating and detecting these compounds in environmental samples, the target analytes must be extracted and pre-concentrated to make them detectable. In this work, we review the most recent applications of microextraction preparation techniques in different water environmental matrices to determine organic micropollutants: solid-phase microextraction SPME, in-tube solid-phase microextraction (IT-SPME), stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and liquid-phase microextraction (LPME). Several groups of compounds are considered organic micropollutants because these are being released continuously into the environment. Many of these compounds are considered emerging contaminants. These analytes are generally compounds that are not covered by the existing regulations and are now detected more frequently in different environmental compartments. Pharmaceuticals, surfactants, personal care products and other chemicals are considered micropollutants. These compounds must be monitored because, although they are detected in low concentrations, they might be harmful toward ecosystems. View Full-Text
Keywords: organic micropollutants; water samples; pesticides; pharmaceuticals; personal care products; microextraction techniques organic micropollutants; water samples; pesticides; pharmaceuticals; personal care products; microextraction techniques
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MDPI and ACS Style

Padrón, M.E.T.; Afonso-Olivares, C.; Sosa-Ferrera, Z.; Santana-Rodríguez, J.J. Microextraction Techniques Coupled to Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry for the Determination of Organic Micropollutants in Environmental Water Samples. Molecules 2014, 19, 10320-10349.

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