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Molecules 2014, 19(5), 6851-6862; doi:10.3390/molecules19056851

Associations of nm23H1, VEGF-C, and VEGF-3 Receptor in Human Prostate Cancer

, ,  and *
Engineering Research Centers of Marine Organism Medical Products, Medical College of Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan 316022, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 May 2014 / Revised: 13 May 2014 / Accepted: 21 May 2014 / Published: 23 May 2014
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We studied the expression of the non-metastatic clone 23 type 1 (nm23H1) gene, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, and its receptor VEGFR-3 using an in situ hybridization technique and immunohistochemical analyses with prostate cancer tissues and adjacent benign tissues of 52 human archival cases. The association between VEGF-C expression, microlymphatic count (MLC), and staining intensity for nm23H1 and VEGFR-3 was used to evaluate tumor metastasis and survival rate. MLC values were significantly higher in tumorous tissue than in non-cancerous tissue. VEGF-C mRNA, VEGFR-3, and nm23H1 were highly expressed in tumorous tissue. VEGFR-3 expression was greater in VEGF-C mRNA-positive tumors than in VEGF-C mRNA-negative tumors. The association of VEGFR-3 expression with VEGF-C mRNA and MLC suggested that the poor prognosis and tumor metastasis associated with VEGFR-3 expression may be due, in part, to its role in promoting angiogenesis. VEGF-C expression was significantly associated with tumor lymphangiogenesis, angiogenesis, and immune response as a potent multifunctional stimulating factor in prostate cancer. Expression of nm23H1 was significantly inversely correlated with lymph node metastasis. Furthermore, there was a strong negative correlation between the expression of nm23H1, VEGF-C mRNA, and MLC. These findings provide important information for prophylactic, diagnostic, and therapeutic strategies for prostate cancer.
Keywords: human prostate cancer; VEGFR-3; VEGF-C; nm23H1 human prostate cancer; VEGFR-3; VEGF-C; nm23H1
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Yang, Z.-S.; Xu, Y.-F.; Huang, F.-F.; Ding, G.-F. Associations of nm23H1, VEGF-C, and VEGF-3 Receptor in Human Prostate Cancer. Molecules 2014, 19, 6851-6862.

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