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Molecules 2014, 19(5), 6851-6862; doi:10.3390/molecules19056851
Article

Associations of nm23H1, VEGF-C, and VEGF-3 Receptor in Human Prostate Cancer

, ,  and *
Engineering Research Centers of Marine Organism Medical Products, Medical College of Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan 316022, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 May 2014 / Revised: 13 May 2014 / Accepted: 21 May 2014 / Published: 23 May 2014
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Abstract

We studied the expression of the non-metastatic clone 23 type 1 (nm23H1) gene, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, and its receptor VEGFR-3 using an in situ hybridization technique and immunohistochemical analyses with prostate cancer tissues and adjacent benign tissues of 52 human archival cases. The association between VEGF-C expression, microlymphatic count (MLC), and staining intensity for nm23H1 and VEGFR-3 was used to evaluate tumor metastasis and survival rate. MLC values were significantly higher in tumorous tissue than in non-cancerous tissue. VEGF-C mRNA, VEGFR-3, and nm23H1 were highly expressed in tumorous tissue. VEGFR-3 expression was greater in VEGF-C mRNA-positive tumors than in VEGF-C mRNA-negative tumors. The association of VEGFR-3 expression with VEGF-C mRNA and MLC suggested that the poor prognosis and tumor metastasis associated with VEGFR-3 expression may be due, in part, to its role in promoting angiogenesis. VEGF-C expression was significantly associated with tumor lymphangiogenesis, angiogenesis, and immune response as a potent multifunctional stimulating factor in prostate cancer. Expression of nm23H1 was significantly inversely correlated with lymph node metastasis. Furthermore, there was a strong negative correlation between the expression of nm23H1, VEGF-C mRNA, and MLC. These findings provide important information for prophylactic, diagnostic, and therapeutic strategies for prostate cancer.
Keywords: human prostate cancer; VEGFR-3; VEGF-C; nm23H1 human prostate cancer; VEGFR-3; VEGF-C; nm23H1
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Yang, Z.-S.; Xu, Y.-F.; Huang, F.-F.; Ding, G.-F. Associations of nm23H1, VEGF-C, and VEGF-3 Receptor in Human Prostate Cancer. Molecules 2014, 19, 6851-6862.

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