Molecules 2014, 19(5), 6776-6808; doi:10.3390/molecules19056776
Review

Applications of Liquid-Phase Microextraction in the Sample Preparation of Environmental Solid Samples

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Received: 21 April 2014; in revised form: 19 May 2014 / Accepted: 21 May 2014 / Published: 23 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microextraction)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Solvent extraction remains one of the fundamental sample preparation techniques in the analysis of environmental solid samples, but organic solvents are toxic and environmentally harmful, therefore one of the possible greening directions is its miniaturization. The present review covers the relevant research from the field of application of microextraction to the sample preparation of environmental solid samples (soil, sediments, sewage sludge, dust etc.) published in the last decade. Several innovative liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) techniques that have emerged recently have also been applied as an aid in sample preparation of these samples: single-drop microextraction (SDME), hollow fiber-liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME), dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME). Besides the common organic solvents, surfactants and ionic liquids are also used. However, these techniques have to be combined with another technique to release the analytes from the solid sample into an aqueous solution. In the present review, the published methods were categorized into three groups: LPME in combination with a conventional solvent extraction; LPME in combination with an environmentally friendly extraction; LPME without previous extraction. The applicability of these approaches to the sample preparation for the determination of pollutants in solid environmental samples is discussed, with emphasis on their strengths, weak points and environmental impact.
Keywords: liquid-phase microextraction; SDME; HF-LPME; DLLME; environmental solid sample; soil; sediment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Prosen, H. Applications of Liquid-Phase Microextraction in the Sample Preparation of Environmental Solid Samples. Molecules 2014, 19, 6776-6808.

AMA Style

Prosen H. Applications of Liquid-Phase Microextraction in the Sample Preparation of Environmental Solid Samples. Molecules. 2014; 19(5):6776-6808.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Prosen, Helena. 2014. "Applications of Liquid-Phase Microextraction in the Sample Preparation of Environmental Solid Samples." Molecules 19, no. 5: 6776-6808.

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