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Molecules 2014, 19(3), 2911-2924; doi:10.3390/molecules19032911
Article

Determination of Pesticide Residues in Honeybees using Modified QUEChERS Sample Work-Up and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

1,* , 2
 and 1
Received: 3 December 2013; in revised form: 24 February 2014 / Accepted: 26 February 2014 / Published: 6 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microextraction)
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Abstract: Increasing emissions of chemical compounds to the environment, especially of pesticides, is one of factors that may explain present honeybee colony losses. In this work, an analytical method employing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was optimized for the simultaneous screening of 19 pesticides which have not been yet determined in honeybee samples from northern Poland (Pomerania). The sample preparation, based on the QuEChERS method combining salting-out liquid-liquid extraction to acetonitrile and a dispersive-SPE clean-up, was adjusted to honeybee samples by adding a small amount of hexane to eliminate beeswax. The recovery of analytes ranged from 70% to 120% with relative standard deviation ≤20%. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.91–25 ng/g. A total of 19 samples of honeybees from suspected pesticide poisoning incidents were analyzed, in which 19 different pesticides were determined.
Keywords: environmental monitoring; honey; honeybees; LC-MS/MS; pesticides; QuEChERS method environmental monitoring; honey; honeybees; LC-MS/MS; pesticides; QuEChERS method
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bargańska, Ż.; Ślebioda, M.; Namieśnik, J. Determination of Pesticide Residues in Honeybees using Modified QUEChERS Sample Work-Up and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Molecules 2014, 19, 2911-2924.

AMA Style

Bargańska Ż, Ślebioda M, Namieśnik J. Determination of Pesticide Residues in Honeybees using Modified QUEChERS Sample Work-Up and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Molecules. 2014; 19(3):2911-2924.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bargańska, Żaneta; Ślebioda, Marek; Namieśnik, Jacek. 2014. "Determination of Pesticide Residues in Honeybees using Modified QUEChERS Sample Work-Up and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry." Molecules 19, no. 3: 2911-2924.


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