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Molecules 2014, 19(4), 4524-4547; doi:10.3390/molecules19044524
Article

Comparative Study of Tributyltin Adsorption onto Mesoporous Silica Functionalized with Calix[4]arene, p-tert-Butylcalix[4]arene and p-Sulfonatocalix[4]arene

1,2,* , 1
 and 1
Received: 27 February 2014; in revised form: 3 April 2014 / Accepted: 4 April 2014 / Published: 10 April 2014
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Abstract: The adsorption of tributyltin (TBT), onto three mesoporous silica adsorbents functionalized with calix[4]arene, p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene and p-sulfonatocalix[4]arene (MCM-TDI-C4, MCM-TDI-PC4 and MCM-TDI-C4S, respectively) has been compared. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out and the effect of contact time, initial TBT concentration, pH and temperature were studied. The Koble–Corrigan isotherm was the most suitable for data fitting. Based on a Langmuir isotherm model, the maximum adsorption capacities were 12.1212, 16.4204 and 7.5757 mg/g for MCM-TDI-C4, MCM-TDI-PC4 and MCM-TDI-C4S, respectively. The larger uptake and stronger affinity of MCM-TDI-PC4 than MCM-TDI-C4 and MCM-TDI-C4S probably results from van der Waals interactions and the pore size distribution of MCM-TDI-PC4. Gibbs free energies for the three adsorption processes of TBT presented a negative value, reflecting that TBT/surface interactions are thermodynamic favorable and spontaneous. The interaction processes were accompanied by an increase of entropy value for MCM-TDI-C4 and MCM-TDI-C4S (43.7192 and 120.7609 J/mol K, respectively) and a decrease for MCM-TDI-PC4 (−37.4704 J/mol K). It is obviously observed that MCM-TDI-PC4 spontaneously adsorbs TBT driven mainly by enthalpy change, while MCM-TDI-C4 and MCM-TDI-C4S do so driven mainly by entropy changes.
Keywords: tributyltin; functionalized MCM-41; adsorption isotherm; thermodynamics tributyltin; functionalized MCM-41; adsorption isotherm; thermodynamics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alahmadi, S.; Mohamad, S.; Maah, M.J. Comparative Study of Tributyltin Adsorption onto Mesoporous Silica Functionalized with Calix[4]arene, p-tert-Butylcalix[4]arene and p-Sulfonatocalix[4]arene. Molecules 2014, 19, 4524-4547.

AMA Style

Alahmadi S, Mohamad S, Maah MJ. Comparative Study of Tributyltin Adsorption onto Mesoporous Silica Functionalized with Calix[4]arene, p-tert-Butylcalix[4]arene and p-Sulfonatocalix[4]arene. Molecules. 2014; 19(4):4524-4547.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alahmadi, Sana; Mohamad, Sharifah; Maah, Mohd J. 2014. "Comparative Study of Tributyltin Adsorption onto Mesoporous Silica Functionalized with Calix[4]arene, p-tert-Butylcalix[4]arene and p-Sulfonatocalix[4]arene." Molecules 19, no. 4: 4524-4547.



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