Molecules 2014, 19(3), 2771-2792; doi:10.3390/molecules19032771
Article

Effect of Corn Steep Liquor (CSL) and Cassava Wastewater (CW) on Chitin and Chitosan Production by Cunninghamella elegans and Their Physicochemical Characteristics and Cytotoxicity

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Received: 2 December 2013; in revised form: 14 February 2014 / Accepted: 17 February 2014 / Published: 28 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Microbiological processes were used for chitin and chitosan production with Cunninghamella elegans UCP/WFCC 0542 grown in different concentrations of two agro-industrial wastes, corn steep liquor (CSL) and cassava wastewater (CW) established using a 22 full factorial design. The polysaccharides were extracted by alkali-acid treatment and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, viscosity, thermal analysis, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The cytotoxicity of chitosan was evaluated for signs of vascular change on the chorioallantoic membrane of chicken eggs. The highest biomass (9.93 g/L) was obtained in trial 3 (5% CW, 8% CSL), the greatest chitin and chitosan yields were 89.39 mg/g and 57.82 mg/g, respectively, and both were obtained in trial 2 (10% CW, 4% CSL). Chitin and chitosan showed a degree of deacetylation of 40.98% and 88.24%, and a crystalline index of 35.80% and 23.82%, respectively, and chitosan showed low molecular weight (LMW 5.2 × 103 Da). Chitin and chitosan can be considered non-irritating, due to the fact they do not promote vascular change. It was demonstrated that CSL and CW are effective renewable agroindustrial alternative substrates for the production of chitin and chitosan.
Keywords: Cunninghamella elegans; chitin; chitosan; corn steep liquor; cassava; wastewater; characterization; chorioallantoic membrane
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MDPI and ACS Style

Berger, L.R.R.; Stamford, T.C.M.; Stamford-Arnaud, T.M.; de Oliveira Franco, L.; do Nascimento, A.E.; Cavalcante, H.M.M.; Macedo, R.O.; de Campos-Takaki, G.M. Effect of Corn Steep Liquor (CSL) and Cassava Wastewater (CW) on Chitin and Chitosan Production by Cunninghamella elegans and Their Physicochemical Characteristics and Cytotoxicity. Molecules 2014, 19, 2771-2792.

AMA Style

Berger LRR, Stamford TCM, Stamford-Arnaud TM, de Oliveira Franco L, do Nascimento AE, Cavalcante HMM, Macedo RO, de Campos-Takaki GM. Effect of Corn Steep Liquor (CSL) and Cassava Wastewater (CW) on Chitin and Chitosan Production by Cunninghamella elegans and Their Physicochemical Characteristics and Cytotoxicity. Molecules. 2014; 19(3):2771-2792.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Berger, Lúcia R.R.; Stamford, Thayza C.M.; Stamford-Arnaud, Thatiana M.; de Oliveira Franco, Luciana; do Nascimento, Aline E.; Cavalcante, Horacinna M.M.; Macedo, Rui O.; de Campos-Takaki, Galba M. 2014. "Effect of Corn Steep Liquor (CSL) and Cassava Wastewater (CW) on Chitin and Chitosan Production by Cunninghamella elegans and Their Physicochemical Characteristics and Cytotoxicity." Molecules 19, no. 3: 2771-2792.

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