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Molecules 2014, 19(2), 2181-2198; doi:10.3390/molecules19022181

Optimized Production of Vanillin from Green Vanilla Pods by Enzyme-Assisted Extraction Combined with Pre-Freezing and Thawing

1,2,3, 4, 5, 1,2,3, 1,2,3, 1,2,3, 1,2,3 and 1,2,3,*
1
Spice and Beverage Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences (CATAS), Wanning 571533, China
2
National Center of Important Tropical Crops Engineering and Technology Research, Wanning 571533, China
3
Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources Utilization of Spice and Beverage Crops, Ministry of Agriculture, Wanning 571533, China
4
College of Food Science and Technology, Hainan University, Haikou 570100, China
5
Department of Food, Nutrition and Packaging Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 January 2014 / Revised: 10 February 2014 / Accepted: 11 February 2014 / Published: 19 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract

Production of vanillin from natural green vanilla pods was carried out by enzyme-assisted extraction combined with pre-freezing and thawing. In the first step the green vanilla pods were pre-frozen and then thawed to destroy cellular compartmentation. In the second step pectinase from Aspergillus niger was used to hydrolyze the pectin between the glucovanillin substrate and β-glucosidase. Four main variables, including enzyme amount, reaction temperature, time and pH, which were of significance for the vanillin content were studied and a central composite design (CCD) based on the results of a single-factor tests was used. Response surface methodology based on CCD was employed to optimize the combination of enzyme amount, reaction temperature, time, and pH for maximum vanillin production. This resulted in the optimal condition in regards of the enzyme amount, reaction temperature, time, and pH at 84.2 mg, 49.5 °C, 7.1 h, and 4.2, respectively. Under the optimal condition, the experimental yield of vanillin was 4.63% ± 0.11% (dwb), which was in good agreement with the value predicted by the model. Compared to the traditional curing process (1.98%) and viscozyme extract (2.36%), the optimized method for the vanillin production significantly increased the yield by 133.85% and 96%, respectively.
Keywords: green vanilla; pectinase-assistant extraction; pre-freezing and thawing; response surface methodology; vanillin production green vanilla; pectinase-assistant extraction; pre-freezing and thawing; response surface methodology; vanillin production
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, Y.; Mo, L.; Chen, F.; Lu, M.; Dong, W.; Wang, Q.; Xu, F.; Gu, F. Optimized Production of Vanillin from Green Vanilla Pods by Enzyme-Assisted Extraction Combined with Pre-Freezing and Thawing. Molecules 2014, 19, 2181-2198.

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