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Molecules 2014, 19(12), 20913-20928; doi:10.3390/molecules191220913

An Insecticidal Compound Produced by an Insect-Pathogenic Bacterium Suppresses Host Defenses through Phenoloxidase Inhibition

1
School of Applied Biosciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, Korea
2
Department of Biological Science and Chemistry, University of Nizwa, Nizwa 616, Oman
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 November 2014 / Revised: 3 December 2014 / Accepted: 9 December 2014 / Published: 12 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract

A bioassay-guided column chromatographic strategy was adopted in the present study to fractionate the culture extract of Photorhabdus temperata M1021 to identify potential insecticidal and antimicrobial compounds. An ethyl acetate (EtOAc) culture extract of P. temperata was assayed against Galleria mellonella larvae through intra-hemocoel injection and exhibited 100% insect mortality within 60 h. The EtOAc fraction and an isolated compound exhibited phenoloxidase (PO) inhibition of up to 60% and 63%, respectively. The compound was identified as 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid (phthalic acid, PA) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. PA exhibited insecticidal activity against G. mellonella in a dose-dependent manner, and 100% insect mortality was observed at 108 h after injection of 1 M PA. In a PO inhibition assay, 0.5 and 1 M concentrations of PA were found to inhibit PO activity by 74% and 82%, respectively; and in a melanotic nodule formation assay, nodule formation was significantly inhibited (27 and 10 nodules) by PA (0.5 and 1 M, respectively). PA was furthermore found to have substantial antioxidant activity and maximum antioxidant activity was 64.7% for 0.5 M PA as compare to control. Antibacterial activity was assessed by The MIC values ranged from 0.1 M to 0.5 M of PA. This study reports a multifunctional PA, a potential insecticidal agent, could a factor of insect mortality along with other toxins produced by P. temperata M1021. View Full-Text
Keywords: insecticidal; compound; phthalic acid; antibacterial; antifungal; antioxidant insecticidal; compound; phthalic acid; antibacterial; antifungal; antioxidant
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ullah, I.; Khan, A.L.; Ali, L.; Khan, A.R.; Waqas, M.; Lee, I.-J.; Shin, J.-H. An Insecticidal Compound Produced by an Insect-Pathogenic Bacterium Suppresses Host Defenses through Phenoloxidase Inhibition. Molecules 2014, 19, 20913-20928.

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