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Molecules 2014, 19(11), 18448-18464; doi:10.3390/molecules191118448

Augmenting the Antifungal Activity of an Oxidizing Agent with Kojic Acid: Control of Penicillium Strains Infecting Crops

Foodborne Toxin Detection and Prevention Research Unit, Western Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 800 Buchanan St., Albany, CA 94710, USA
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Received: 24 September 2014 / Revised: 4 November 2014 / Accepted: 5 November 2014 / Published: 12 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract

Oxidative treatment is one of the strategies for preventing Penicillium contamination in crops/foods. The antifungal efficacy of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; oxidant) was investigated in Penicillium strains by using kojic acid (KA) as a chemosensitizing agent, which can enhance the susceptibility of pathogens to antifungal agents. Co-application of KA with H2O2 (chemosensitization) resulted in the enhancement of antifungal activity of either compound, when compared to the independent application of each agent alone. Of note, heat enhanced the activity of H2O2 to a greater extent during chemosensitization, whereby the minimum inhibitory or minimum fungicidal concentrations of H2O2 was decreased up to 4 or 13 fold, respectively, at 35–45 °C (heat), when compared to that at 28 °C (normal growth temperature). However, heat didn’t increase the antifungal activity of KA, indicating specificity exists between heat and types of antifungals applied. The effect of chemosensitization was also strain-specific, where P. expansum (both parental and fludioxonil-resistant mutants) or P. italicum 983 exhibited relatively higher susceptibility to the chemosensitization, comparing to other Penicillium strains tested. Collectively, chemosensitization can serve as a potent antifungal strategy to lower effective dosages of toxic antifungal substances, such as H2O2. This can lead to coincidental lowering of environmental and health risks. View Full-Text
Keywords: antifungal; chemosensitization; heat treatment; hydrogen peroxide; kojic acid; mycotoxin; Penicillium antifungal; chemosensitization; heat treatment; hydrogen peroxide; kojic acid; mycotoxin; Penicillium
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, J.H.; Chan, K.L. Augmenting the Antifungal Activity of an Oxidizing Agent with Kojic Acid: Control of Penicillium Strains Infecting Crops. Molecules 2014, 19, 18448-18464.

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