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Molecules 2014, 19(11), 18232-18247; doi:10.3390/molecules191118232

Sulfated Chitosan Oligosaccharides Suppress LPS-Induced NO Production via JNK and NF-κB Inactivation

1
Department of Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701, Korea
2
Industry-Academic Cooperation Foundation, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756, Korea
3
Specialized Graduate School & Technology Convergence, Department of Marine-Bio Convergence Science, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737, Korea
4
School of Marine Biomedical Sciences, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756, Korea
5
Korea Nokyong Research Center, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 August 2014 / Revised: 12 September 2014 / Accepted: 4 November 2014 / Published: 7 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Cellulose and Chitin Chemistry)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1359 KB, uploaded 7 November 2014]   |  

Abstract

Various biological effects have been reported for sulfated chitosan oligosaccharides, but the molecular mechanisms of action of their anti-inflammatory effects are still unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of sulfated chitosan oligosaccharides and to elucidate the possible mechanisms of action. The results showed that pretreated low molecular weight sulfated chitosan oligosaccharides inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 cells. The sulfated chitosan oligosaccharides also suppressed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), phosphorylation of JNK and translocation of p65, a subunit of NF-κB, into the nucleus by inhibiting degradation of IκB-α. Our investigation suggests sulfated chitosan oligosaccharides inhibit IL-6/TNF-α in LPS-induced macrophages, regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathways dependent on NF-κB activation. View Full-Text
Keywords: sulfated chitosan oligosaccharides; RAW264.7 cells; MAPKs pathways; anti-inflammatory sulfated chitosan oligosaccharides; RAW264.7 cells; MAPKs pathways; anti-inflammatory
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, J.-H.; Kim, Y.-S.; Hwang, J.-W.; Han, Y.-K.; Lee, J.-S.; Kim, S.-K.; Jeon, Y.-J.; Moon, S.-H.; Jeon, B.-T.; Bahk, Y.Y.; Park, P.-J. Sulfated Chitosan Oligosaccharides Suppress LPS-Induced NO Production via JNK and NF-κB Inactivation. Molecules 2014, 19, 18232-18247.

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