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Molecules 2014, 19(10), 16672-16683; doi:10.3390/molecules191016672

Optimization of Natural Lipstick Formulation Based on Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Seed Oil Using D-Optimal Mixture Experimental Design

1
Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Putra Infoport, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Centre of Foundation Studies for Agriculture Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
3
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 August 2014 / Revised: 25 September 2014 / Accepted: 26 September 2014 / Published: 16 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract

The D-optimal mixture experimental design was employed to optimize the melting point of natural lipstick based on pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) seed oil. The influence of the main lipstick components—pitaya seed oil (10%–25% w/w), virgin coconut oil (25%–45% w/w), beeswax (5%–25% w/w), candelilla wax (1%–5% w/w) and carnauba wax (1%–5% w/w)—were investigated with respect to the melting point properties of the lipstick formulation. The D-optimal mixture experimental design was applied to optimize the properties of lipstick by focusing on the melting point with respect to the above influencing components. The D-optimal mixture design analysis showed that the variation in the response (melting point) could be depicted as a quadratic function of the main components of the lipstick. The best combination of each significant factor determined by the D-optimal mixture design was established to be pitaya seed oil (25% w/w), virgin coconut oil (37% w/w), beeswax (17% w/w), candelilla wax (2% w/w) and carnauba wax (2% w/w). With respect to these factors, the 46.0 °C melting point property was observed experimentally, similar to the theoretical prediction of 46.5 °C. Carnauba wax is the most influential factor on this response (melting point) with its function being with respect to heat endurance. The quadratic polynomial model sufficiently fit the experimental data. View Full-Text
Keywords: cosmetics; lipstick formulation; pitaya seed oil; D-optimal; mixture design cosmetics; lipstick formulation; pitaya seed oil; D-optimal; mixture design
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kamairudin, N.; Gani, S.S.A.; Masoumi, H.R.F.; Hashim, P. Optimization of Natural Lipstick Formulation Based on Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Seed Oil Using D-Optimal Mixture Experimental Design. Molecules 2014, 19, 16672-16683.

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