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Molecules 2014, 19(1), 756-766; doi:10.3390/molecules19010756

Antimalarial Evaluation of the Chemical Constituents of Hairy Root Culture of Bixa orellana L.

1,2, 3, 3, 3, 1,2 and 3,*
1 Arkansas Biosciences Institute, Arkansas State University, P.O. Box 639, State University, AR 72467, USA 2 Department of Biological Sciences, Arkansas State, P. O. Box. 599, State University, AR 72467, USA 3 Department of Chemical Biology and Therapeutics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 December 2013 / Revised: 18 December 2013 / Accepted: 19 December 2013 / Published: 8 January 2014
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Over 216 million malaria cases are reported annually worldwide and about a third of these cases, primarily children under the age of five years old, will not survive the infection. Despite this significant world health impact, only a limited number of therapeutic agents are currently available. The lack of scaffold diversity poses a threat in the event that multi-drug–resistant strains emerge. Terrestrial natural products have provided a major source of chemical diversity for starting materials in many FDA approved drugs over the past century. Bixa orellana L. is a popular plant used in South America for the treatment of malaria. In search of new potential therapeutic agents, the chemical constituents of a selected hairy root culture line of Bixa orellana L. were characterized utilizing NMR and mass spectrometry methods, followed by its biological evaluation against malaria strains 3D7 and K1. The crude extract and its isolated compounds demonstrated EC50 values in the micromolar range. Herein, we report our findings on the chemical constituents of Bixa orellana L. from hairy roots responsible for the observed antimalarial activity.
Keywords: malaria; Bixa orellana L.; stigmasterol; hairy root malaria; Bixa orellana L.; stigmasterol; hairy root
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Zhai, B.; Clark, J.; Ling, T.; Connelly, M.; Medina-Bolivar, F.; Rivas, F. Antimalarial Evaluation of the Chemical Constituents of Hairy Root Culture of Bixa orellana L.. Molecules 2014, 19, 756-766.

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