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Molecules 2014, 19(1), 482-506; doi:10.3390/molecules19010482
Article

Wine by-Products: Phenolic Characterization and Antioxidant Activity Evaluation of Grapes and Grape Pomaces from Six Different French Grape Varieties

1,2,3, 1,2, 1,2, 3 and 1,2,*
1 Univ Bordeaux, ISVV, EA 4577 Œnologie, Villenave d'Ornon F-33140, France 2 INRA, ISVV, USC 1366 Œnologie, Villenave d'Ornon F-33140, France 3 School of Medicine, College of Medical, Veterinary & Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 November 2013 / Revised: 21 December 2013 / Accepted: 25 December 2013 / Published: 2 January 2014
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Abstract

Grenache, Syrah, Carignan Noir, Mourvèdre, Counoise and Alicante Bouchet grape seeds and skins, harvested in 2009 and 2010 in the Rhône valley area of France, and their respective pomaces remaining after vinification, were analyzed for their phenolic composition and antioxidant activity. The polyphenol content was quantified by HPLC and the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The antioxidant potential was measured with four different assays: ORAC, FRAP, ABTS and DPPH. Seeds contained higher amounts of total polyphenols, up to 44.5 mg of gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/g dry weight in Alicante pomace, than skin extracts. The maximum total phenolic in skins was 31.6 mg GAE/g dry weight detected in 2010 Alicante pomace. Seeds also had the highest antioxidant capacity. HPLC analysis revealed that, despite the vinification process, pomaces still contained an appreciable amount of proanthocyanidins as well as several anthocyanin glycosides. Alicante and Syrah proved to be the varieties of most interest in terms of their potential development for nutraceutical purposes.
Keywords: grape varieties; grape pomaces; grape by-products; phenolic compounds; proanthocyanidins; anthocyanins; antioxidant activity grape varieties; grape pomaces; grape by-products; phenolic compounds; proanthocyanidins; anthocyanins; antioxidant activity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Ky, I.; Lorrain, B.; Kolbas, N.; Crozier, A.; Teissedre, P.-L. Wine by-Products: Phenolic Characterization and Antioxidant Activity Evaluation of Grapes and Grape Pomaces from Six Different French Grape Varieties. Molecules 2014, 19, 482-506.

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