Molecules 2013, 18(9), 10599-10608; doi:10.3390/molecules180910599
Article

Phytochemical, Antimicrobial and Antiprotozoal Evaluation of Garcinia Mangostana Pericarp and α-Mangostin, Its Major Xanthone Derivative

1 Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2457, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia 2 Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mansoura University, El-Mansoura 35516, Egypt 3 Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Assiut University, Assiut P.O. Box 71515, Egypt 4 Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2457, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia 5 Laboratory for Microbiology, Parasitology and Hygiene (LMPH), Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences, Antwerp University, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk-Antwerp, Belgium
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 August 2013; in revised form: 21 August 2013 / Accepted: 28 August 2013 / Published: 2 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract: Five xanthone derivatives and one flavanol were isolated from the dichloromethane extract of Garcinia mangostana. Dichloromethane, ethyl acetate extract and the major xanthone (α-mangostin) were evaluated in vitro against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. The major constituent α-mangostin was also checked for antimicrobial potential against Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillius subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium smegmatis, M. cheleneoi, M. xenopi and M. intracellulare. Activity against P. falciparum (IC50 2.7 μg/mL) and T. brucei (IC50 0.5 μg/mL) were observed for the dichloromethane extract, however, with only moderate selectivity was seen based on a parallel cytotoxicity evaluation on MRC-5 cells (IC50 9.4 μg/mL). The ethyl acetate extract was inactive (IC50 > 30 µg/mL). The major constituent α-mangostin showed rather high cytotoxicity (IC50 7.5 µM) and a broad but non-selective antiprotozoal and antimicrobial activity profile. This in vitro study endorses that the antiprotozoal and antimicrobial potential of prenylated xanthones is non-conclusive in view of the low level of selectivity.
Keywords: Garcinia mangostana; α-mangostin; in vitro; antiplasmodial; antileishmanial; antitrypanosomal

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MDPI and ACS Style

Al-Massarani, S.M.; El Gamal, A.A.; Al-Musayeib, N.M.; Mothana, R.A.; Basudan, O.A.; Al-Rehaily, A.J.; Farag, M.; Assaf, M.H.; El Tahir, K.H.; Maes, L. Phytochemical, Antimicrobial and Antiprotozoal Evaluation of Garcinia Mangostana Pericarp and α-Mangostin, Its Major Xanthone Derivative. Molecules 2013, 18, 10599-10608.

AMA Style

Al-Massarani SM, El Gamal AA, Al-Musayeib NM, Mothana RA, Basudan OA, Al-Rehaily AJ, Farag M, Assaf MH, El Tahir KH, Maes L. Phytochemical, Antimicrobial and Antiprotozoal Evaluation of Garcinia Mangostana Pericarp and α-Mangostin, Its Major Xanthone Derivative. Molecules. 2013; 18(9):10599-10608.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Al-Massarani, Shaza M.; El Gamal, Ali A.; Al-Musayeib, Nawal M.; Mothana, Ramzi A.; Basudan, Omer A.; Al-Rehaily, Adnan J.; Farag, Mohamed; Assaf, Mahmoud H.; El Tahir, KamalEldin H.; Maes, Louis. 2013. "Phytochemical, Antimicrobial and Antiprotozoal Evaluation of Garcinia Mangostana Pericarp and α-Mangostin, Its Major Xanthone Derivative." Molecules 18, no. 9: 10599-10608.

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