Molecules 2013, 18(8), 9550-9566; doi:10.3390/molecules18089550
Article

Melaleuca alternifolia Concentrate Inhibits in Vitro Entry of Influenza Virus into Host Cells

1,†email, 2,†email, 3email, 4email, 1email, 5email, 1email, 1email, 1email, 3email, 2,* email and 1,* email
Received: 25 June 2013; in revised form: 18 July 2013 / Accepted: 19 July 2013 / Published: 9 August 2013
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Influenza virus causes high morbidity among the infected population annually and occasionally the spread of pandemics. Melaleuca alternifolia Concentrate (MAC) is an essential oil derived from a native Australian tea tree. Our aim was to investigate whether MAC has any in vitro inhibitory effect on influenza virus infection and what mechanism does the MAC use to fight the virus infection. In this study, the antiviral activity of MAC was examined by its inhibition of cytopathic effects. In silico prediction was performed to evaluate the interaction between MAC and the viral haemagglutinin. We found that when the influenza virus was incubated with 0.010% MAC for one hour, no cytopathic effect on MDCK cells was found after the virus infection and no immunofluorescence signal was detected in the host cells. Electron microscopy showed that the virus treated with MAC retained its structural integrity. By computational simulations, we found that terpinen-4-ol, which is the major bioactive component of MAC, could combine with the membrane fusion site of haemagglutinin. Thus, we proved that MAC could prevent influenza virus from entering the host cells by disturbing the normal viral membrane fusion procedure.
Keywords: Melaleuca alternifolia Concentrate (MAC); influenza virus; haemagglutinin; terpinen-4-ol; molecular docking; molecular dynamics
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [3083 KB, Updated Version, uploaded 18 June 2014 20:09 CEST]
The original version is still available [3083 KB, uploaded 18 June 2014 20:09 CEST]

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Li, X.; Duan, S.; Chu, C.; Xu, J.; Zeng, G.; Lam, A.K.-Y.; Zhou, J.; Yin, Y.; Fang, D.; Reynolds, M.J.; Gu, H.; Jiang, L. Melaleuca alternifolia Concentrate Inhibits in Vitro Entry of Influenza Virus into Host Cells. Molecules 2013, 18, 9550-9566.

AMA Style

Li X, Duan S, Chu C, Xu J, Zeng G, Lam AK-Y, Zhou J, Yin Y, Fang D, Reynolds MJ, Gu H, Jiang L. Melaleuca alternifolia Concentrate Inhibits in Vitro Entry of Influenza Virus into Host Cells. Molecules. 2013; 18(8):9550-9566.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Xinghua; Duan, Songwei; Chu, Cordia; Xu, Jun; Zeng, Gucheng; Lam, Alfred K.-Y.; Zhou, Junmei; Yin, Yue; Fang, Danyun; Reynolds, Maxwell J.; Gu, Huaiyu; Jiang, Lifang. 2013. "Melaleuca alternifolia Concentrate Inhibits in Vitro Entry of Influenza Virus into Host Cells." Molecules 18, no. 8: 9550-9566.


Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert