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Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Inonotus obliquus and Germinated Brown Rice Extracts
Department of Life Science, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Research Institute of Inflammatory Disease, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701, Korea
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 June 2013; in revised form: 28 July 2013 / Accepted: 30 July 2013 / Published: 2 August 2013
Abstract: Inonotus obliquus (IO) is parasitic mushroom that grows on birch and other trees in Russia, Korea, Europe and United States. However, IO is not readily available for consumption due to its high cost and difficult growth. In this regard, IO was inoculated on germinated brown rice (GBR) in the present study and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the IO grown on germinated brown rice (IOGBR) extracts were evaluated extensively and compared with those for IO and GBR. IOGBR showed highest antioxidant activities with scavenging total intracellular ROS and MDA levels as well as increasing the antioxidant enzymes activity in the H2O2-stimulated mice liver. It also exhibited best inflammatory activities by suppressing the proinflammatory mediators such as NO, PGE2, iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in an LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cell line. This study provides a comparative approach to find out an excellent natural source of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agent as a dietary supplement.
Keywords: dietary supplement; ROS; antioxidant enzyme; pro-inflammatory cytokine
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MDPI and ACS Style
Debnath, T.; Park, S.R.; Kim, D.H.; Jo, J.E.; Lim, B.O. Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Inonotus obliquus and Germinated Brown Rice Extracts. Molecules 2013, 18, 9293-9304.
Debnath T, Park SR, Kim DH, Jo JE, Lim BO. Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Inonotus obliquus and Germinated Brown Rice Extracts. Molecules. 2013; 18(8):9293-9304.
Debnath, Trishna; Park, Sa R.; Kim, Da H.; Jo, Jeong E.; Lim, Beong O. 2013. "Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Inonotus obliquus and Germinated Brown Rice Extracts." Molecules 18, no. 8: 9293-9304.