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Solid-, Solution-, and Gas-state NMR Monitoring of 13C-Cellulose Degradation in an Anaerobic Microbial Ecosystem
Research Planning and Management Group, Kajima Technical Research Institute, KAJIMA Corporation, 2-19-1 Tobitakyu, Chofu, Tokyo 182-0036, Japan
Graduate School of Medical Life Science, Yokohama City University, 1-7-29 Suehirocho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan
RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science, 1-7-22 Suehirocho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan
Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, 1 Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-0810, Japan
Biomass Engineering Program, RIKEN Research Cluster for Innovation, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako 351-0198, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 June 2013; in revised form: 10 July 2013 / Accepted: 19 July 2013 / Published: 29 July 2013
Abstract: Anaerobic digestion of biomacromolecules in various microbial ecosystems is influenced by the variations in types, qualities, and quantities of chemical components. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a powerful tool for characterizing the degradation of solids to gases in anaerobic digestion processes. Here we describe a characterization strategy using NMR spectroscopy for targeting the input solid insoluble biomass, catabolized soluble metabolites, and produced gases. 13C-labeled cellulose produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus was added as a substrate to stirred tank reactors and gradually degraded for 120 h. The time-course variations in structural heterogeneity of cellulose catabolism were determined using solid-state NMR, and soluble metabolites produced by cellulose degradation were monitored using solution-state NMR. In particular, cooperative changes between the solid NMR signal and 13C-13C/13C-12C isotopomers in the microbial degradation of 13C-cellulose were revealed by a correlation heat map. The triple phase NMR measurements demonstrated that cellulose was anaerobically degraded, fermented, and converted to methane gas from organic acids such as acetic acid and butyric acid.
Keywords: solid-state NMR; solution-state NMR; gas-state NMR; anaerobic digestion; bacterial cellulose
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Yamazawa, A.; Iikura, T.; Shino, A.; Date, Y.; Kikuchi, J. Solid-, Solution-, and Gas-state NMR Monitoring of 13C-Cellulose Degradation in an Anaerobic Microbial Ecosystem. Molecules 2013, 18, 9021-9033.
Yamazawa A, Iikura T, Shino A, Date Y, Kikuchi J. Solid-, Solution-, and Gas-state NMR Monitoring of 13C-Cellulose Degradation in an Anaerobic Microbial Ecosystem. Molecules. 2013; 18(8):9021-9033.
Yamazawa, Akira; Iikura, Tomohiro; Shino, Amiu; Date, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Jun. 2013. "Solid-, Solution-, and Gas-state NMR Monitoring of 13C-Cellulose Degradation in an Anaerobic Microbial Ecosystem." Molecules 18, no. 8: 9021-9033.