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Molecules 2013, 18(8), 8994-9009; doi:10.3390/molecules18088994

Aporphine Alkaloids from the Leaves of Phoebe grandis (Nees) Mer. (Lauraceae) and Their Cytotoxic and Antibacterial Activities

1,2,* , 3
Received: 16 May 2013 / Revised: 16 July 2013 / Accepted: 22 July 2013 / Published: 29 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
Download PDF [312 KB, 18 June 2014; original version 18 June 2014]


The oxoaporphine alkaloid lysicamine (1), and three proaporphine alkaloids, litsericinone (2), 8,9,11,12-tetrahydromecambrine (3) and hexahydromecambrine A (4) were isolated from the leaves of Phoebe grandis (Nees) Merr. (Lauraceae). Compounds 2 and 3 were first time isolated as new naturally occurring compounds from plants. The NMR data for the compounds 24 have never been reported so far. Compounds 1 and 2 showed significant cytotoxic activity against a MCF7 (human estrogen receptor (ER+) positive breast cancer) cell line with IC50 values of 26 and 60 µg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, in vitro cytotoxic activity against HepG2 (human liver cancer) cell line was evaluated for compounds 14 with IC50 values of 27, 14, 81 and 20 µg/mL, respectively. Lysicamine (1) displayed strong antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis (B145), Staphylococcus aureus (S1434) and Staphylococus epidermidis (a clinically isolated strain) with inhibition zones of 15.50 ± 0.57, 13.33 ± 0.57 and 12.00 ± 0.00 mm, respectively. However, none of the tested pathogenic bacteria were susceptible towards compounds 2 and 3.
Keywords: Phoebe grandis; Lauraceae; aporphine alkaloid; cytotoxic; antibacterial Phoebe grandis; Lauraceae; aporphine alkaloid; cytotoxic; antibacterial
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


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Omar, H.; Hashim, N.M.; Zajmi, A.; Nordin, N.; Abdelwahab, S.I.; Azizan, A.H.S.; Hadi, A.H.A.; Ali, H.M. Aporphine Alkaloids from the Leaves of Phoebe grandis (Nees) Mer. (Lauraceae) and Their Cytotoxic and Antibacterial Activities. Molecules 2013, 18, 8994-9009.

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