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Molecules 2013, 18(5), 5965-5979; doi:10.3390/molecules18055965
Article

Interactive Effect of Salicylic Acid on Some Physiological Features and Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

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Received: 3 April 2013; in revised form: 13 May 2013 / Accepted: 13 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
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Abstract: The effect of foliar salicylic acid (SA) applications (10−3 and 10−5 M) on activities of nitrate reductase, guaiacol peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutases (SOD), catalase (CAT) and proline enzymes and physiological parameters was evaluated in two ginger varieties (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara) under greenhouse conditions. In both varieties, tested treatments generally enhanced photosynthetic rate and total dry weight. Photosynthetic rate increases were generally accompanied by increased or unchanged stomatal conductance levels, although intercellular CO2 concentrations of treated plants were typically lower than in controls. Lower SA concentrations were generally more effective in enhancing photosynthetic rate and plant growth. Exogenous application of SA increased antioxidant enzyme activities and proline content; the greatest responses were obtained in plants sprayed with 10–5 M SA, with significant increases observed in CAT (20.1%), POD (45.2%), SOD (44.1%) and proline (43.1%) activities. Increased CAT activity in leaves is naturally expected to increase photosynthetic efficiency and thus net photosynthesis by maintaining a constant CO2 supply. Our results support the idea that low SA concentrations (10–5 M) may induce nitrite reductase synthesis by mobilizing intracellular NO3 and can provide protection to nitrite reductase degradation in vivo in the absence of NO3–. Observed positive correlations among proline, SOD, CAT and POD activities in the studied varieties suggest that increased SOD activity was accompanied by increases in CAT and POD activities because of the high demands of H2O2 quenching.
Keywords: salicylic acid; nitrate reductase; peroxidase activity; superoxide dismutases; catalase enzyme; proline activity salicylic acid; nitrate reductase; peroxidase activity; superoxide dismutases; catalase enzyme; proline activity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ghasemzadeh, A.; Jaafar, H.Z.E. Interactive Effect of Salicylic Acid on Some Physiological Features and Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). Molecules 2013, 18, 5965-5979.

AMA Style

Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZE. Interactive Effect of Salicylic Acid on Some Physiological Features and Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). Molecules. 2013; 18(5):5965-5979.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z.E. 2013. "Interactive Effect of Salicylic Acid on Some Physiological Features and Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)." Molecules 18, no. 5: 5965-5979.


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