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Molecules 2013, 18(5), 5172-5189; doi:10.3390/molecules18055172
Article

A-Type Proanthocyanidins from the Stems of Ephedra sinica (Ephedraceae) and Their Antimicrobial Activities

1, 1,* , 1, 1, 1, 2 and 1,*
Received: 19 April 2013; in revised form: 1 May 2013 / Accepted: 2 May 2013 / Published: 6 May 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
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Abstract: Phytochemical investigation of the n-BuOH-soluble fraction of the EtOH extract of the herbaceous stems of Ephedra sinica, which is known as Ephedrae Herba in Traditional Chinese Medicine, led to the isolation and identification of 12 A-type proanthocyanidins, containing five dimers, two trimers and five tetramers [i.e., (+)-epigallocatechin-(2αO→7,4α→8)-(-)-catechin, named ephedrannin D1, a dimer; epigallocatechin-(2αO→7,4α→8)-epigallocatechin-(4α→8)-catechin (ephedrannin Tr1), a trimer; and epigallocatechin-(2αO→7,4α→8)-epigallocatechin-(4α→8)-epigallocatechin-(2αO→7,4α→8)-gallocatechin, named ephedrannin Te1, a tetramer). Tetramers composed of gallocatechin are reported for the first time in Ephedraceae. Catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin and four known dimers were also isolated. The structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configurations of the 4α linkages, which were confirmed by NOESY and CD experiments, are the outstanding characteristic of most of these isolated A-type proanthocyanidins. The antimicrobial activities of these compounds were tested by measuring the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) against bacteria (both Gram positive and Gram negative) and fungi, and were found to be in the range of 0.00515–1.38 mM. Compounds 6, 8, 10 and 11 exhibited moderate antimicrobial activities against Canidia albicans.
Keywords: Ephedra sinica; Ephedraceae; A-type proanthocyanidin; ephedrannin D1; ephedrannin Tr1; ephedrannin Te1; antimicrobial activities Ephedra sinica; Ephedraceae; A-type proanthocyanidin; ephedrannin D1; ephedrannin Tr1; ephedrannin Te1; antimicrobial activities
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zang, X.; Shang, M.; Xu, F.; Liang, J.; Wang, X.; Mikage, M.; Cai, S. A-Type Proanthocyanidins from the Stems of Ephedra sinica (Ephedraceae) and Their Antimicrobial Activities. Molecules 2013, 18, 5172-5189.

AMA Style

Zang X, Shang M, Xu F, Liang J, Wang X, Mikage M, Cai S. A-Type Proanthocyanidins from the Stems of Ephedra sinica (Ephedraceae) and Their Antimicrobial Activities. Molecules. 2013; 18(5):5172-5189.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zang, Xinyu; Shang, Mingying; Xu, Feng; Liang, Jing; Wang, Xuan; Mikage, Masayuki; Cai, Shaoqing. 2013. "A-Type Proanthocyanidins from the Stems of Ephedra sinica (Ephedraceae) and Their Antimicrobial Activities." Molecules 18, no. 5: 5172-5189.



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