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Molecules 2013, 18(4), 3825-3838; doi:10.3390/molecules18043825
Article

Effects of Freshwater Clam Extract Supplementation on Time to Exhaustion, Muscle Damage, Pro/Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines, and Liver Injury in Rats after Exhaustive Exercise

1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 1,*  and 6,*
1 Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30068, Taiwan 2 Holistic Education Center, Mackay Medical College, New Taipei City 25245, Taiwan 3 Department of Orthopedics, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, Hualien 97004, Taiwan 4 Intensive Care Unit, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, Taipei Branch, Taipei 23142, Taiwan 5 Department of Nursing, St. Mary's Medicine, Nursing and Management College, Yi-Lan 26644, Taiwan 6 Department of Nursing, Tzu Chi University, Hualien 97004, Taiwan 7 Department of Nephrology, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, Hualien 97004, Taiwan
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 February 2013 / Revised: 22 March 2013 / Accepted: 22 March 2013 / Published: 26 March 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
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Abstract

The potent anti-inflammatory activities and tissue-protective effects of freshwater clams (Corbicula fluminea) have been well reported. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of freshwater clam extract (FCE) supplementation on time to exhaustion, muscle damage, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and liver injury in rats after exhaustive exercise. Thirty-two rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control (SC); SC group with FCE supplementation (SC+FCE); exhaustive exercise (E); and E group with FCE supplementation (E+FCE). The SC+FCE and E+FCE groups were treated with gavage administration of 20 mg/kg for seven consecutive days. Blood samples were collected for the evaluation of biochemical parameters. The cytokine levels of TNF-α and IL-10 were also examined. Twenty-four hours after exhaustive exercise, the rat livers were removed for H & E staining. The FCE supplementation could extend the time to exhaustion in exercised rats. The levels of CPK, LDH, AST, ALT, lactate, TNF-α and H & E stains of the liver injury were significantly decreased in the E+FCE group, but the blood glucose and IL-10 were significantly higher in comparison with the E group. This study suggests that FCE supplementation may improve endurance performance and reduce exercise-induced muscle damage, inflammatory stress and liver injury.
Keywords: Corbicula fluminea; anti-inflammatory; endurance performance; blood glucose Corbicula fluminea; anti-inflammatory; endurance performance; blood glucose
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Huang, K.-C.; Wu, W.-T.; Yang, F.-L.; Chiu, Y.-H.; Peng, T.-C.; Hsu, B.-G.; Liao, K.-W.; Lee, R.-P. Effects of Freshwater Clam Extract Supplementation on Time to Exhaustion, Muscle Damage, Pro/Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines, and Liver Injury in Rats after Exhaustive Exercise. Molecules 2013, 18, 3825-3838.

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