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Molecules 2013, 18(12), 15519-15530; doi:10.3390/molecules181215519
Communication

Seed Germination-Influencing Bioactive Secondary Metabolites Secreted by the Endophyte Cladosporium cladosporioides LWL5

1,2,†
,
1,3,†
,
3
,
1
,
1,4
 and
1,*
1 School of Applied Biosciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, Korea 2 Department of Agriculture Extension, Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Bunir 19290, Pakistan 3 Department of Biological Sciences and Chemistry, College of Arts & Sciences, University of Nizwa, Nizwa 33, Oman 4 International Agricultural Training Center, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, Korea These authors contributed equally to the work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 October 2013 / Revised: 7 December 2013 / Accepted: 9 December 2013 / Published: 13 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
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Abstract

The present study was aimed to isolate bioactive metabolites produced by a fungal endophyte from Helianthus annuus, Capsicum annuum, and Cucumis sativus and to assess their role in seed germination. Culture filtrate of the endophyte HA-3B from H. annuus was significantly inhibitory towards the germination and growth of lettuce seeds. HA-3B was identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides LWL5 through molecular techniques. Different concentrations (100, 500 and 1000 ppm) of the ethyl acetate extract obtained from the culture inhibited the lettuce seed germination. The extract was subjected to column chromatography and a bioassay-guided isolation method, which yielded compounds 1, 2 and an oily fraction. The oily fraction, subjected to fractionation and spectroscopic techniques, resulted in the identification of 31 different constituents. Compounds 1 and 2 were identified and characterized through MS and NMR spectroscopic techniques as benzoic acid. The bioassay results showed that this compound significantly inhibited the growth and germination of lettuce seeds. In conclusion, assessing the role of endophytes harboring essential crop plants can help us to develop potentially eco-friendly herbicides.
Keywords: natural products; endophytes; lettuce seed; growth inhibition; seed germination; weeds control; allelopathy natural products; endophytes; lettuce seed; growth inhibition; seed germination; weeds control; allelopathy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Waqas, M.; Khan, A.L.; Ali, L.; Kang, S.-M.; Kim, Y.-H.; Lee, I.-J. Seed Germination-Influencing Bioactive Secondary Metabolites Secreted by the Endophyte Cladosporium cladosporioides LWL5. Molecules 2013, 18, 15519-15530.

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