Molecules 2013, 18(12), 15519-15530; doi:10.3390/molecules181215519
Communication

Seed Germination-Influencing Bioactive Secondary Metabolites Secreted by the Endophyte Cladosporium cladosporioides LWL5

1,2,†email, 1,3,†email, 3email, 1email, 1,4email and 1,* email
Received: 8 October 2013; in revised form: 7 December 2013 / Accepted: 9 December 2013 / Published: 13 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
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Abstract: The present study was aimed to isolate bioactive metabolites produced by a fungal endophyte from Helianthus annuus, Capsicum annuum, and Cucumis sativus and to assess their role in seed germination. Culture filtrate of the endophyte HA-3B from H. annuus was significantly inhibitory towards the germination and growth of lettuce seeds. HA-3B was identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides LWL5 through molecular techniques. Different concentrations (100, 500 and 1000 ppm) of the ethyl acetate extract obtained from the culture inhibited the lettuce seed germination. The extract was subjected to column chromatography and a bioassay-guided isolation method, which yielded compounds 1, 2 and an oily fraction. The oily fraction, subjected to fractionation and spectroscopic techniques, resulted in the identification of 31 different constituents. Compounds 1 and 2 were identified and characterized through MS and NMR spectroscopic techniques as benzoic acid. The bioassay results showed that this compound significantly inhibited the growth and germination of lettuce seeds. In conclusion, assessing the role of endophytes harboring essential crop plants can help us to develop potentially eco-friendly herbicides.
Keywords: natural products; endophytes; lettuce seed; growth inhibition; seed germination; weeds control; allelopathy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Waqas, M.; Khan, A.L.; Ali, L.; Kang, S.-M.; Kim, Y.-H.; Lee, I.-J. Seed Germination-Influencing Bioactive Secondary Metabolites Secreted by the Endophyte Cladosporium cladosporioides LWL5. Molecules 2013, 18, 15519-15530.

AMA Style

Waqas M, Khan AL, Ali L, Kang S-M, Kim Y-H, Lee I-J. Seed Germination-Influencing Bioactive Secondary Metabolites Secreted by the Endophyte Cladosporium cladosporioides LWL5. Molecules. 2013; 18(12):15519-15530.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul L.; Ali, Liaqat; Kang, Sang-Mo; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Lee, In-Jung. 2013. "Seed Germination-Influencing Bioactive Secondary Metabolites Secreted by the Endophyte Cladosporium cladosporioides LWL5." Molecules 18, no. 12: 15519-15530.


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