Molecules 2013, 18(11), 13320-13339; doi:10.3390/molecules181113320
Article

Dillenia Suffruticosa Extract Inhibits Proliferation of Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) via Induction of G2/M Arrest and Apoptosis

1 Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia 2 Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia 3 Laboratory of Natural Product, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia 4 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia 5 School of Medical Science, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia 6 Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 August 2013; in revised form: 20 October 2013 / Accepted: 20 October 2013 / Published: 29 October 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract: The present research was designed to evaluate the anticancer properties of Dillenia suffruticosa extract. Our focus was on the mode of cell death and cell cycle arrest induced in breast cancer cells by the active fractions (designated as D/F4, D/F5 and EA/P2) derived from chromatographic fractionation of D. suffruticosa extracts. The results showed that the active fractions are more cytotoxic towards MCF-7 (estrogen positive breast cancer cells) and MDA-MB-231 (estrogen negative breast cancer cells) as compared to other selected cancer cell lines that included HeLa, A459 and CaOV3. The induction of cell death through apoptosis by the active fractions on the breast cancer cells was confirmed by Annexin V-FITC and PI staining. Cell cycle analysis revealed that D/F4 and EA/P2 induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in MCF-7 cells. On the other hand, MDA-MB-231 cells treated with D/F4 and D/F5 accumulated in the sub-G1 phase without cell cycle arrest, suggesting the induction of cell death through apoptosis. The data suggest that the active fractions of D. suffruticosa extract eliminated breast cancer cells through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. The reason why MCF-7 was more sensitive towards the treatment than MDA-MB-231 remains unclear. This warrants further work, especially on the role of hormones in response towards cytotoxic agents. In addition, more studies on the mechanisms underlying the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by the plant extract also need to be carried out.
Keywords: Dillenia suffruticosa; apoptosis; cell cycle arrest; fractionation

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MDPI and ACS Style

Armania, N.; Yazan, L.S.; Ismail, I.S.; Foo, J.B.; Tor, Y.S.; Ishak, N.; Ismail, N.; Ismail, M. Dillenia Suffruticosa Extract Inhibits Proliferation of Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) via Induction of G2/M Arrest and Apoptosis. Molecules 2013, 18, 13320-13339.

AMA Style

Armania N, Yazan LS, Ismail IS, Foo JB, Tor YS, Ishak N, Ismail N, Ismail M. Dillenia Suffruticosa Extract Inhibits Proliferation of Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) via Induction of G2/M Arrest and Apoptosis. Molecules. 2013; 18(11):13320-13339.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Armania, Nurdin; Yazan, Latifah S.; Ismail, Intan S.; Foo, Jhi B.; Tor, Yim S.; Ishak, Nurshafini; Ismail, Norsharina; Ismail, Maznah. 2013. "Dillenia Suffruticosa Extract Inhibits Proliferation of Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) via Induction of G2/M Arrest and Apoptosis." Molecules 18, no. 11: 13320-13339.

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