Next Article in Journal
Copper-Catalyzed Three- Five- or Seven-Component Coupling Reactions: The Selective Synthesis of Cyanomethylamines, N,N-Bis(Cyanomethyl)Amines and N,N'-Bis(Cyanomethyl)Methylenediamines Based on a Strecker-Type Synthesis
Previous Article in Journal
Four New Glycosides from the Fruit of Xanthium sibiricum Patr.
Molecules 2013, 18(10), 12474-12487; doi:10.3390/molecules181012474
Article

Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) and Solvent Extraction of Papaya Seed Oil: Yield, Fatty Acid Composition and Triacylglycerol Profile

1
, 1,* , 1
 and 2
Received: 1 August 2013; in revised form: 16 September 2013 / Accepted: 29 September 2013 / Published: 10 October 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
Download PDF [539 KB, updated 18 June 2014; original version uploaded 18 June 2014]
Abstract: The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively). Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%–74.7%), palmitic (16:0, 14.9%–17.9%), stearic (18:0, 4.50%–5.25%), and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%–4.6%). Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO), palmitoyl diolein (POO) and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL). In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE) and conditions.
Keywords: ultrasound-assisted extraction; solvent extraction; papaya seed oil; fatty acid composition; triacylglycerol profile ultrasound-assisted extraction; solvent extraction; papaya seed oil; fatty acid composition; triacylglycerol profile
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Samaram, S.; Mirhosseini, H.; Tan, C.P.; Ghazali, H.M. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) and Solvent Extraction of Papaya Seed Oil: Yield, Fatty Acid Composition and Triacylglycerol Profile. Molecules 2013, 18, 12474-12487.

AMA Style

Samaram S, Mirhosseini H, Tan CP, Ghazali HM. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) and Solvent Extraction of Papaya Seed Oil: Yield, Fatty Acid Composition and Triacylglycerol Profile. Molecules. 2013; 18(10):12474-12487.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Samaram, Shadi; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Tan, Chin P.; Ghazali, Hasanah M. 2013. "Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) and Solvent Extraction of Papaya Seed Oil: Yield, Fatty Acid Composition and Triacylglycerol Profile." Molecules 18, no. 10: 12474-12487.


Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert