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Molecules 2013, 18(10), 12426-12440; doi:10.3390/molecules181012426
Article

Antioxidant and Photoprotective Effects of Blanch Water, a Byproduct of the Almond Processing Industry

1,2, 1, 1, 3, 4, 4, 1 and 1,*
1 Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco e dei Prodotti per la Salute, University of Messina, Viale Annunziata, Messina 98100, Italy 2 Model Gut Platform, Institute of Food Research, Norwich Research Park, Colney Lane NR4 7UA, Norwich, UK 3 Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche ed Ambientali, University of Messina, Sal. Sperone, Messina 98100, Italy 4 Dipartimento of Pharmaceutical Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Catania, Viale Andrea Doria, Catania 95125, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 August 2013 / Revised: 26 September 2013 / Accepted: 27 September 2013 / Published: 9 October 2013
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Abstract

The aim of the present work was to evaluate the antioxidant and photoprotective effect of blanch water (BW), a byproduct of the almond processing industry. The polyphenolic content of a BW extract, the level of proanthocyanidins and the vanillin index determination were determined. The antioxidant activity and the radical scavenging activity of the BW were evaluated by a range of in vitro tests. The in vivo photoprotective effect was investigated using a formulation containing 2% of the BW extract on skin erythema induced by acute UV-B exposure in twelve volunteers. Results confirmed the presence of added-value antioxidant compounds in the industrial BW extract, and the most representative compounds were naringenin-7-O-glucoside and kaempferol-7-O-rutinoside. The proanthocyanidin content was 71.84 ± 5.21 cyanidin equivalents/g of BW extract. The good antiradical activity of the BW extract was demonstrated in both the DPPH test and in the Reducing Power test. The percentage inhibition of erythema obtained using a formulation of BW was 50.48, value clearly demonstrating an effect against photooxidative damage in vivo.
Keywords: blanch water; byproduct; photoprotective; antioxidant; polyphenols blanch water; byproduct; photoprotective; antioxidant; polyphenols
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Mandalari, G.; Arcoraci, T.; Martorana, M.; Bisignano, C.; Rizza, L.; Bonina, F.P.; Trombetta, D.; Tomaino, A. Antioxidant and Photoprotective Effects of Blanch Water, a Byproduct of the Almond Processing Industry. Molecules 2013, 18, 12426-12440.

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