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Antioxidant and Photoprotective Effects of Blanch Water, a Byproduct of the Almond Processing Industry
Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco e dei Prodotti per la Salute, University of Messina, Viale Annunziata, Messina 98100, Italy
Model Gut Platform, Institute of Food Research, Norwich Research Park, Colney Lane NR4 7UA, Norwich, UK
Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche ed Ambientali, University of Messina, Sal. Sperone, Messina 98100, Italy
Dipartimento of Pharmaceutical Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Catania, Viale Andrea Doria, Catania 95125, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 August 2013; in revised form: 26 September 2013 / Accepted: 27 September 2013 / Published: 9 October 2013
Abstract: The aim of the present work was to evaluate the antioxidant and photoprotective effect of blanch water (BW), a byproduct of the almond processing industry. The polyphenolic content of a BW extract, the level of proanthocyanidins and the vanillin index determination were determined. The antioxidant activity and the radical scavenging activity of the BW were evaluated by a range of in vitro tests. The in vivo photoprotective effect was investigated using a formulation containing 2% of the BW extract on skin erythema induced by acute UV-B exposure in twelve volunteers. Results confirmed the presence of added-value antioxidant compounds in the industrial BW extract, and the most representative compounds were naringenin-7-O-glucoside and kaempferol-7-O-rutinoside. The proanthocyanidin content was 71.84 ± 5.21 cyanidin equivalents/g of BW extract. The good antiradical activity of the BW extract was demonstrated in both the DPPH• test and in the Reducing Power test. The percentage inhibition of erythema obtained using a formulation of BW was 50.48, value clearly demonstrating an effect against photooxidative damage in vivo.
Keywords: blanch water; byproduct; photoprotective; antioxidant; polyphenols
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Mandalari, G.; Arcoraci, T.; Martorana, M.; Bisignano, C.; Rizza, L.; Bonina, F.P.; Trombetta, D.; Tomaino, A. Antioxidant and Photoprotective Effects of Blanch Water, a Byproduct of the Almond Processing Industry. Molecules 2013, 18, 12426-12440.
Mandalari G, Arcoraci T, Martorana M, Bisignano C, Rizza L, Bonina FP, Trombetta D, Tomaino A. Antioxidant and Photoprotective Effects of Blanch Water, a Byproduct of the Almond Processing Industry. Molecules. 2013; 18(10):12426-12440.
Mandalari, Giuseppina; Arcoraci, Teresita; Martorana, Maria; Bisignano, Carlo; Rizza, Luisa; Bonina, Francesco P.; Trombetta, Domenico; Tomaino, Antonio. 2013. "Antioxidant and Photoprotective Effects of Blanch Water, a Byproduct of the Almond Processing Industry." Molecules 18, no. 10: 12426-12440.