Molecules 2012, 17(9), 10916-10927; doi:10.3390/molecules170910916
Article

Antiproliferation and Induction of Apoptosis in Ca9-22 Oral Cancer Cells by Ethanolic Extract of Gracilaria tenuistipitata

1, 1,2, 3, 4, 2, 5,6, 1,* email and 1,2,7,* email
Received: 20 August 2012; in revised form: 6 September 2012 / Accepted: 7 September 2012 / Published: 11 September 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The water extract of Gracilaria tenuistipitata have been found to be protective against oxidative stress-induced cellular DNA damage, but the biological function of the ethanolic extracts of G. tenuistipitata (EEGT) is still unknown. In this study, the effect of EEGT on oral squamous cell cancer (OSCC) Ca9-22 cell line was examined in terms of the cell proliferation and oxidative stress responses. The cell viability of EEGT-treated OSCC cells was significantly reduced in a dose-response manner (p < 0.0001). The annexin V intensity and pan-caspase activity of EEGT-treated OSCC cells were significantly increased in a dose-response manner (p < 0.05 to 0.0001). EEGT significantly increased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level (p < 0.0001) and decreased the glutathione (GSH) level (p < 0.01) in a dose-response manner. The mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) of EEGT-treated OSCC cells was significantly decreased in a dose-response manner (p < 0.005). In conclusion, we have demonstrated that EEGT induced the growth inhibition and apoptosis of OSCC cells, which was accompanied by ROS increase, GSH depletion, caspase activation, and mitochondrial depolarization. Therefore, EEGT may have potent antitumor effect against oral cancer cells.
Keywords: oral cancer; apoptosis; ROS; glutathione; mitochondrial membrane potential; marine natural product
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yeh, C.-C.; Tseng, C.-N.; Yang, J.-I.; Huang, H.-W.; Fang, Y.; Tang, J.-Y.; Chang, F.-R.; Chang, H.-W. Antiproliferation and Induction of Apoptosis in Ca9-22 Oral Cancer Cells by Ethanolic Extract of Gracilaria tenuistipitata. Molecules 2012, 17, 10916-10927.

AMA Style

Yeh C-C, Tseng C-N, Yang J-I, Huang H-W, Fang Y, Tang J-Y, Chang F-R, Chang H-W. Antiproliferation and Induction of Apoptosis in Ca9-22 Oral Cancer Cells by Ethanolic Extract of Gracilaria tenuistipitata. Molecules. 2012; 17(9):10916-10927.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yeh, Chi-Chen; Tseng, Chao-Neng; Yang, Jing-Iong; Huang, Hurng-Wern; Fang, Yi; Tang, Jen-Yang; Chang, Fang-Rong; Chang, Hsueh-Wei. 2012. "Antiproliferation and Induction of Apoptosis in Ca9-22 Oral Cancer Cells by Ethanolic Extract of Gracilaria tenuistipitata." Molecules 17, no. 9: 10916-10927.


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