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Molecules 2012, 17(9), 10916-10927; doi:10.3390/molecules170910916
Article

Antiproliferation and Induction of Apoptosis in Ca9-22 Oral Cancer Cells by Ethanolic Extract of Gracilaria tenuistipitata

1, 1,2, 3, 4, 2, 5,6, 1,*  and 1,2,7,*
1 Graduate Institute of Natural Products, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan 2 Department of Biomedical Science and Environmental Biology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan 3 Department of Seafood Science, National Kaohsiung Marine University, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan 4 Institute of Biomedical Science, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan 5 Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan 6 Department of Radiation Oncology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan 7 Cancer Center, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 August 2012 / Revised: 6 September 2012 / Accepted: 7 September 2012 / Published: 11 September 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
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Abstract

The water extract of Gracilaria tenuistipitata have been found to be protective against oxidative stress-induced cellular DNA damage, but the biological function of the ethanolic extracts of G. tenuistipitata (EEGT) is still unknown. In this study, the effect of EEGT on oral squamous cell cancer (OSCC) Ca9-22 cell line was examined in terms of the cell proliferation and oxidative stress responses. The cell viability of EEGT-treated OSCC cells was significantly reduced in a dose-response manner (p < 0.0001). The annexin V intensity and pan-caspase activity of EEGT-treated OSCC cells were significantly increased in a dose-response manner (p < 0.05 to 0.0001). EEGT significantly increased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level (p < 0.0001) and decreased the glutathione (GSH) level (p < 0.01) in a dose-response manner. The mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) of EEGT-treated OSCC cells was significantly decreased in a dose-response manner (p < 0.005). In conclusion, we have demonstrated that EEGT induced the growth inhibition and apoptosis of OSCC cells, which was accompanied by ROS increase, GSH depletion, caspase activation, and mitochondrial depolarization. Therefore, EEGT may have potent antitumor effect against oral cancer cells.
Keywords: oral cancer; apoptosis; ROS; glutathione; mitochondrial membrane potential; marine natural product oral cancer; apoptosis; ROS; glutathione; mitochondrial membrane potential; marine natural product
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yeh, C.-C.; Tseng, C.-N.; Yang, J.-I.; Huang, H.-W.; Fang, Y.; Tang, J.-Y.; Chang, F.-R.; Chang, H.-W. Antiproliferation and Induction of Apoptosis in Ca9-22 Oral Cancer Cells by Ethanolic Extract of Gracilaria tenuistipitata. Molecules 2012, 17, 10916-10927.

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