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Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9348-9360; doi:10.3390/molecules17089348
Article

Induction of Apoptosis by Ethanolic Extract of Corchorus olitorius Leaf in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HepG2) Cells via a Mitochondria-Dependent Pathway

1,†
, 2,†, 3,†, 2, 4, 5 and 2,*
Received: 2 July 2012; in revised form: 30 July 2012 / Accepted: 2 August 2012 / Published: 3 August 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
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Abstract: Corchorus olitorius L., is a culinary and medicinal herb, widely used as a vegetable in several countries in Asia. Many studies have shown that C. olitorius contains several antioxidants and exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities in various in vitro and in vivo settings. Recently, C. olitorius has been approved for its antitumor activity; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanol extract of C. olitorius (ECO) on the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells and gain some insights into the underlying mechanisms of its action. We found that HepG2 cells, treated with ECO for 24 h at a concentration higher than 12.5 μg/mL, displayed a strong reduction in cell viability, whereas normal FL83B hepatocytes were not affected. DNA fragmentation and nuclear condensation were evidenced by the increased subG1 population of ECO-treated HepG2 cells. ECO triggered the activation of procaspases-3 and -9 and caused the cleavage of downstream substrate, poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), followed by down-regulation of the inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase (ICAD) signaling. Moreover, the increased release of cytochrome c from mitochondria with decreased membrane potential demonstrated the apoptosis induced through the caspases cascade. Our findings indicated that ECO might be effective against hepatocellular carcinoma through induction of apoptosis via mitochondria-dependent pathway.
Keywords: Corchorus olitorius L.; HepG2 cells; mitochondria; apoptosis Corchorus olitorius L.; HepG2 cells; mitochondria; apoptosis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, C.-J.; Huang, S.-Y.; Wu, M.-Y.; Chen, Y.-C.; Tsang, S.-F.; Chyuan, J.-H.; Hsu, H.-Y. Induction of Apoptosis by Ethanolic Extract of Corchorus olitorius Leaf in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HepG2) Cells via a Mitochondria-Dependent Pathway. Molecules 2012, 17, 9348-9360.

AMA Style

Li C-J, Huang S-Y, Wu M-Y, Chen Y-C, Tsang S-F, Chyuan J-H, Hsu H-Y. Induction of Apoptosis by Ethanolic Extract of Corchorus olitorius Leaf in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HepG2) Cells via a Mitochondria-Dependent Pathway. Molecules. 2012; 17(8):9348-9360.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Chia-Jung; Huang, Shang-Yu; Wu, Meng-Yu; Chen, Yu-Ching; Tsang, Shih-Fang; Chyuan, Jong-Ho; Hsu, Hsue-Yin. 2012. "Induction of Apoptosis by Ethanolic Extract of Corchorus olitorius Leaf in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HepG2) Cells via a Mitochondria-Dependent Pathway." Molecules 17, no. 8: 9348-9360.



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