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Influences of Dryopteris crassirhizoma Extract on the Viability, Growth and Virulence Properties of Streptococcus mutans
Department of Preventive Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Institute of Oral Bioscience and BK 21 Program, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756, Korea
Natural Product Research Group in Oral Biology (NatPROB), Jeonju 561-756, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 July 2012; in revised form: 27 July 2012 / Accepted: 27 July 2012 / Published: 2 August 2012
Abstract: Dryopteris crassirhizoma is traditionally used as an herbal remedy for various diseases, and has been identified in a previous study as a potential anti-caries agent. In this study, the effect of a methanol extract of D. crassirhizoma on the viability, growth and virulence properties of Streptococcus mutans, a cariogenic dental pathogen, was investigated. In addition, the phytochemical composition of the extract was analyzed. The extract showed bactericidal and bacteriostatic activity against oral bacteria (MIC and MBC of S. mutans: 62.5 and 250 μg/mL, respectively). At two times the MBC, the extract significantly eliminated S. mutans up to 99.9% after 1 h incubation. The extract also dose-dependently reduced growth rates of S. mutans at sub-MIC levels. Furthermore, at sub-MIC levels, virulence properties (acid production, acid tolerance, glucosyltransferase activity and sucrose-dependent adherence) of S. mutans were also inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of mono and disaccharides (44.9%), fatty acids (12.3%) and sugar alcohols (6.8%) in the extract. These data indicate that the extract might be useful for the control of dental caries.
Keywords: Streptococcus mutans; Dryopteris crassirhizoma; virulence properties
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MDPI and ACS Style
Ban, S.-H.; Kim, J.-E.; Pandit, S.; Jeon, J.-G. Influences of Dryopteris crassirhizoma Extract on the Viability, Growth and Virulence Properties of Streptococcus mutans. Molecules 2012, 17, 9231-9244.
Ban S-H, Kim J-E, Pandit S, Jeon J-G. Influences of Dryopteris crassirhizoma Extract on the Viability, Growth and Virulence Properties of Streptococcus mutans. Molecules. 2012; 17(8):9231-9244.
Ban, Suk-Ho; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Pandit, Santosh; Jeon, Jae-Gyu. 2012. "Influences of Dryopteris crassirhizoma Extract on the Viability, Growth and Virulence Properties of Streptococcus mutans." Molecules 17, no. 8: 9231-9244.