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Molecules 2012, 17(5), 6083-6099; doi:10.3390/molecules17056083
Review

Synthesis and Bioactivity of Secondary Metabolites from Marine Sponges Containing Dibrominated Indolic Systems

1,* , 1, 2 and 1
Received: 20 April 2012; in revised form: 14 May 2012 / Accepted: 15 May 2012 / Published: 21 May 2012
(This article belongs to the collection Bioactive Compounds)
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Abstract: Marine sponges. (e.g., Hyrtios sp., Dragmacidin sp., Aglophenia pleuma, Aplidium cyaneum, Aplidium meridianum.) produce bioactive secondary metabolites involved in their defence mechanisms. Recently it was demonstrated that several of those compounds show a large variety of biological activities against different human diseases with possible applications in medicinal chemistry and in pharmaceutical fields, especially related to the new drug development process. Researchers have focused their attention principally on secondary metabolites with anti-cancer and cytotoxic activities. A common target for these molecules is the cytoskeleton, which has a central role in cellular proliferation, motility, and profusion involved in the metastatic process associate with tumors. In particular, many substances containing brominated indolic rings such as 5,6-dibromotryptamine, 5,6-dibromo-N-methyltryptamine, 5,6-dibromo-N-methyltryptophan (dibromoabrine), 5,6-dibromo-N,N-dimethyltryptamine and 5,6-dibromo-L-hypaphorine isolated from different marine sources, have shown anti-cancer activity, as well as antibiotic and anti-inflammatory properties. Considering the structural correlation between endogenous monoamine serotonin with marine indolic alkaloids 5,6-dibromoabrine and 5,6-dibromotryptamine, a potential use of some dibrominated indolic metabolites in the treatment of depression-related pathologies has also been hypothesized. Due to the potential applications in the treatment of various diseases and the increasing demand of these compounds for biological assays and the difficult of their isolation from marine sources, we report in this review a series of recent syntheses of marine dibrominated indole-containing products.
Keywords: dibrominated indole; marine secondary metabolites; anticancer; natural products; alkaloids dibrominated indole; marine secondary metabolites; anticancer; natural products; alkaloids
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mollica, A.; Locatelli, M.; Stefanucci, A.; Pinnen, F. Synthesis and Bioactivity of Secondary Metabolites from Marine Sponges Containing Dibrominated Indolic Systems. Molecules 2012, 17, 6083-6099.

AMA Style

Mollica A, Locatelli M, Stefanucci A, Pinnen F. Synthesis and Bioactivity of Secondary Metabolites from Marine Sponges Containing Dibrominated Indolic Systems. Molecules. 2012; 17(5):6083-6099.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mollica, Adriano; Locatelli, Marcello; Stefanucci, Azzurra; Pinnen, Francesco. 2012. "Synthesis and Bioactivity of Secondary Metabolites from Marine Sponges Containing Dibrominated Indolic Systems." Molecules 17, no. 5: 6083-6099.



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