Next Article in Journal
Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Benzothiazole-2-thiol Derivatives as Potential Anticancer Agents
Previous Article in Journal
Inhibition of Melanogenesis Versus Antioxidant Properties of Essential Oil Extracted from Leaves of Vitex negundo Linn and Chemical Composition Analysis by GC-MS
Molecules 2012, 17(4), 3917-3932; doi:10.3390/molecules17043917
Article

Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Properties and Phenolics of Different Solvent Extracts from Bark, Leaves and Seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre

1,2
, 1,3,* , 1,4
, 2
, 5
 and 5,6,*
1 Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan 2 Agriculture Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), P.O. Box 577, Jhang Road, Faisalabad, Pakistan 3 Department of Chemistry, University of Sargodha, Sargodha 40100, Pakistan 4 Environmental Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), P.O. Box 577, Jhang Road, Faisalabad, Pakistan 5 Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia 6 Natural Products Research Division, Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Aga Khan University Medical College, Karachi 74800, Pakistan
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 January 2012 / Revised: 17 March 2012 / Accepted: 21 March 2012 / Published: 30 March 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [233 KB, uploaded 18 June 2014]

Abstract

This study appraises the antioxidant and antimicrobial attributes of various solvent extracts (absolute methanol, aqueous methanol, absolute ethanol, aqueous ethanol, absolute acetone, aqueous acetone, and deionized water) from bark, leaves and seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre. Maximum extraction yield of antioxidant components from bark (16.31%), leaves (11.42%) and seeds (21.51%) of P. pinnata was obtained using aqueous methanol (20:80). Of the extracts tested, the bark extract, obtained with aqueous methanol, exhibited greater levels of total phenolics [6.94 g GAE/100 g dry weight (DW)], total flavonoids (3.44 g CE/100 g DW), inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (69.23%) and DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 value, 3.21 μg/mL), followed by leaves and seeds extracts. Bark extract tested against a set of bacterial and fungal strains also revealed the strongest antimicrobial activity with the largest inhibition zone and lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). HPLC analysis of aqueous methanol extracts from bark, leaves and seeds indicated the presence of protocatechuic, ellagic, ferulic, gallic, gentisic, 4-hydroxybenzoic and 4-hydroxycinnamic acids in bark (1.50–6.70 mg/100 g DW); sorbic, ferulic, gallic, salicylic and p-coumaric acids in leaves (1.18–4.71 mg/100 g DW); vanillic, gallic and tannic acids in seeds (0.52–0.65 mg/100 g DW) as the main phenolic acids. The present investigation concludes that the tested parts of P. pinnata, in particular the bark, have strong potential for the isolation of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for functional food and pharmaceutical uses.
Keywords: P. pinnata; solvent extracts; antioxidants; antimicrobial; HPLC; phenolic acids P. pinnata; solvent extracts; antioxidants; antimicrobial; HPLC; phenolic acids
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Sajid, Z.I.; Anwar, F.; Shabir, G.; Rasul, G.; Alkharfy, K.M.; Gilani, A.-H. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Properties and Phenolics of Different Solvent Extracts from Bark, Leaves and Seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre. Molecules 2012, 17, 3917-3932.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Comments

Citing Articles

[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert