Next Article in Journal
Phloxine B as a Probe for Entrapment in Microcrystalline Cellulose
Previous Article in Journal
Benzoxetes and Benzothietes ¾ Heterocyclic Analogues of Benzocyclobutene
Article Menu

Article Versions

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Molecules 2012, 17(2), 1571-1601; doi:10.3390/molecules17021571

Anthocyanins and Their Variation in Red Wines I. Monomeric Anthocyanins and Their Color Expression

1
Center for Viticulture and Enology, College of Food Science & Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100083, China
2
Faculty of Applied Science, Business and Computing, Eastern Institute of Technology, Napier 4142, New Zealand
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 December 2011 / Revised: 24 January 2012 / Accepted: 2 February 2012 / Published: 7 February 2012
Download PDF [680 KB, uploaded 18 June 2014]

Abstract

Originating in the grapes, monomeric anthocyanins in young red wines contribute the majority of color and the supposed beneficial health effects related to their consumption, and as such they are recognized as one of the most important groups of phenolic metabolites in red wines. In recent years, our increasing knowledge of the chemical complexity of the monomeric anthocyanins, their stability, together with the phenomena such as self-association and copigmentation that can stabilize and enhance their color has helped to explain their color representation in red wine making and aging. A series of new enological practices were developed to improve the anthocyanin extraction, as well as their color expression and maintenance. This paper summarizes the most recent advances in the studies of the monomeric anthocyanins in red wines, emphasizing their origin, occurrence, color enhancing effects, their degradation and the effect of various enological practices on them.
Keywords: monomeric anthocyanin; red wine; self-association; copigmentation; degradation; enology monomeric anthocyanin; red wine; self-association; copigmentation; degradation; enology
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

He, F.; Liang, N.-N.; Mu, L.; Pan, Q.-H.; Wang, J.; Reeves, M.J.; Duan, C.-Q. Anthocyanins and Their Variation in Red Wines I. Monomeric Anthocyanins and Their Color Expression. Molecules 2012, 17, 1571-1601.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]

Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top