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Anthocyanins and Their Variation in Red Wines I. Monomeric Anthocyanins and Their Color Expression
Center for Viticulture and Enology, College of Food Science & Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100083, China
Faculty of Applied Science, Business and Computing, Eastern Institute of Technology, Napier 4142, New Zealand
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 December 2011; in revised form: 24 January 2012 / Accepted: 2 February 2012 / Published: 7 February 2012
Abstract: Originating in the grapes, monomeric anthocyanins in young red wines contribute the majority of color and the supposed beneficial health effects related to their consumption, and as such they are recognized as one of the most important groups of phenolic metabolites in red wines. In recent years, our increasing knowledge of the chemical complexity of the monomeric anthocyanins, their stability, together with the phenomena such as self-association and copigmentation that can stabilize and enhance their color has helped to explain their color representation in red wine making and aging. A series of new enological practices were developed to improve the anthocyanin extraction, as well as their color expression and maintenance. This paper summarizes the most recent advances in the studies of the monomeric anthocyanins in red wines, emphasizing their origin, occurrence, color enhancing effects, their degradation and the effect of various enological practices on them.
Keywords: monomeric anthocyanin; red wine; self-association; copigmentation; degradation; enology
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He, F.; Liang, N.-N.; Mu, L.; Pan, Q.-H.; Wang, J.; Reeves, M.J.; Duan, C.-Q. Anthocyanins and Their Variation in Red Wines I. Monomeric Anthocyanins and Their Color Expression. Molecules 2012, 17, 1571-1601.
He F, Liang N-N, Mu L, Pan Q-H, Wang J, Reeves MJ, Duan C-Q. Anthocyanins and Their Variation in Red Wines I. Monomeric Anthocyanins and Their Color Expression. Molecules. 2012; 17(2):1571-1601.
He, Fei; Liang, Na-Na; Mu, Lin; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Wang, Jun; Reeves, Malcolm J.; Duan, Chang-Qing. 2012. "Anthocyanins and Their Variation in Red Wines I. Monomeric Anthocyanins and Their Color Expression." Molecules 17, no. 2: 1571-1601.