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Amelioration of Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis in Mice by Rhodobacter sphaeroides Extract
Department of Marine Biotechnology and Resources, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan
Asia-Pacific Biotech Developing, Inc. Kaohsiung 806, Taiwan
Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan
Department and Graduate Institute of Aquaculture, National Kaohsiung Marine University, Kaohsiung 404, Taiwan
Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 October 2012; in revised form: 13 November 2012 / Accepted: 14 November 2012 / Published: 16 November 2012
Abstract: Bacteria can produce some compounds in response to their environment. These compounds are widely used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. Some probiotics have immunomodulatory activities and modulate the symptoms of several diseases. Autoimmune diseases represent a complex group of conditions that are thought to be mediated through the development of autoreactive immunoresponses. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is common autoimmune disease that affects many individuals worldwide. Previously, we found that the extracts of Rhodobacter sphaeroides (Lycogen) inhibited nitric oxide production and inducible nitric-oxide synthase expression in activated macrophages. In this study, the effect of Lycogen™, a potent anti-inflammatory agent, was evaluated in mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Oral administration of Lycogen™ reduced the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β) in female BABL/c mice. In addition, the increased number of bacterial flora in the colon induced by DSS was amelirated by Lycogen™. The histological score of intestinal inflammation in 5% DSS-treated mice after oral administration of Lycogen™ was lower than that of control mice. Meanwhile, Lycogen™ dramatically prolonged the survival of mice with severe colitis. These findings identified that Lycogen™ is an anti-inflammatory agent with the capacity to ameliorate DSS-induced colitis.
Keywords: Rhodobacter sphaeroides; Lycogen™; dextran sodium sulfate; colitis; inflammatory
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Liu, W.-S.; Chen, M.-C.; Chiu, K.-H.; Wen, Z.-H.; Lee, C.-H. Amelioration of Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis in Mice by Rhodobacter sphaeroides Extract. Molecules 2012, 17, 13622-13630.
Liu W-S, Chen M-C, Chiu K-H, Wen Z-H, Lee C-H. Amelioration of Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis in Mice by Rhodobacter sphaeroides Extract. Molecules. 2012; 17(11):13622-13630.
Liu, Wen-Sheng; Chen, Man-Chin; Chiu, Kuo-Hsun; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Lee, Che-Hsin. 2012. "Amelioration of Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis in Mice by Rhodobacter sphaeroides Extract." Molecules 17, no. 11: 13622-13630.