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Molecules 2012, 17(11), 13503-13529; doi:10.3390/molecules171113503

Therapeutic Applications of Nucleic Acids and Their Analogues in Toll-like Receptor Signaling

Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749, Korea
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 September 2012 / Revised: 7 November 2012 / Accepted: 9 November 2012 / Published: 14 November 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nucleic Acid Analogs)
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Abstract

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) belong to a family of innate immune receptors that detect and clear invading microbial pathogens. Specifically intracellular TLRs such as TLR3, TLR7, TLR8 and TLR9 recognize nucleic acids such as double-stranded RNA, single-stranded RNA and CpG DNA respectively derived from microbial components. Upon infection, nucleic acid sensing TLRs signal within endosomal compartment triggering the induction of essential proinflammatory cytokines and type I interferons to initiate innate immune responses thereby leading to a critical role in the development of adaptive immune responses. Thus, stimulation of TLRs by nucleic acids is a promising area of research for the development of novel therapeutic strategies against pathogenic infection, allergies, malignant neoplasms and autoimmunity. This review summarizes the therapeutic applications of nucleic acids or nucleic acid analogues through the modulation of TLR signaling pathways.
Keywords: Toll-like receptor; nucleic acid analogues; cancer; autoimmune disease; viral infection; clinical status Toll-like receptor; nucleic acid analogues; cancer; autoimmune disease; viral infection; clinical status
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gosu, V.; Basith, S.; Kwon, O.-P.; Choi, S. Therapeutic Applications of Nucleic Acids and Their Analogues in Toll-like Receptor Signaling. Molecules 2012, 17, 13503-13529.

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