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Molecules 2012, 17(11), 13073-13086; doi:10.3390/molecules171113073
Review

Structural Probes in Quadruplex Nucleic Acid Structure Determination by NMR

 and *
Biomedical Sciences Research Institute, University of Ulster, Cromore Road, Coleraine, Co. Londonderry BT52 1SA, UKĀ 
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 September 2012 / Revised: 1 November 2012 / Accepted: 1 November 2012 / Published: 5 November 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nucleic Acid Analogs)
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Abstract

Traditionally, isotope-labelled DNA and RNA have been fundamental to nucleic acid structural studies by NMR. Four-stranded nucleic acid architectures studies increasingly benefit from a plethora of nucleotide conjugates for resonance assignments, the identification of hydrogen bond alignments, and improving the population of preferred species within equilibria. In this paper, we review their use for these purposes. Most importantly we identify reasons for the failure of some modifications to result in quadruplex formation.
Keywords: chemical modifications; 8-bromoguanosine; quadruplex; 2,6-diaminopurine; LNA; inosine; 8-O-methylguanine; 8-methylguanine; 5-bromouracil; riboguanosine chemical modifications; 8-bromoguanosine; quadruplex; 2,6-diaminopurine; LNA; inosine; 8-O-methylguanine; 8-methylguanine; 5-bromouracil; riboguanosine
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Karsisiotis, A.I.; Webba da Silva, M. Structural Probes in Quadruplex Nucleic Acid Structure Determination by NMR. Molecules 2012, 17, 13073-13086.

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