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Hesperidin Prevents Retinal and Plasma Abnormalities in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
State Key Laboratory of Natural Products and Functions, China Pharmaceutical University, No. 24 Tongjiaxiang, Nanjing 210009, China
College of Life Sciences, Northwest University, Taibai Road 229, Xi'an 710069, China
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 September 2012; in revised form: 26 October 2012 / Accepted: 29 October 2012 / Published: 1 November 2012
Abstract: Diabetic retinopathy is a complex disease that potentially involves increased production of advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) and elevated aldose reductase (AR) activity, which are related with oxidative stress and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hesperidin on retinal and plasma abnormalities in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Hesperidin (100, 200 mg/kg daily) was given to diabetic rats for 12 weeks. The blood-retina breakdown (BRB) was determined after 2 weeks of treatment followed by the measurement of related physiological parameters with ELISA kits and immunohistochemistry staining at the end of the study. Elevated AR activity and blood glucose, increased retinal levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), ICAM-1, TNF-α, IL-1β and AGEs as well as reduced retina thickness were observed in diabetic rats. Hesperidin treatment signiﬁcantly suppressed BRB breakdown and increased retina thickness, reduced blood glucose, AR activity and retinal TNF-α, ICAM-1, VEGF, IL-1β and AGEs levels. Furthermore, treatment with hesperidin signiﬁcantly reduced plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and increased SOD activity in diabetic rats. These data demonstrated that hesperidin attenuates retina and plasma abnormalities via anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects, as well as the inhibitory effect on polyol pathway and AGEs accumulation.
Keywords: hesperidin; diabetic retinopathy; anti-angiogenic effect; aldose reductase activity; AGEs accumulation
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Shi, X.; Liao, S.; Mi, H.; Guo, C.; Qi, D.; Li, F.; Zhang, C.; Yang, Z. Hesperidin Prevents Retinal and Plasma Abnormalities in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats. Molecules 2012, 17, 12868-12881.
Shi X, Liao S, Mi H, Guo C, Qi D, Li F, Zhang C, Yang Z. Hesperidin Prevents Retinal and Plasma Abnormalities in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats. Molecules. 2012; 17(11):12868-12881.
Shi, Xiupu; Liao, Sha; Mi, Huijuan; Guo, Changrun; Qi, Dongli; Li, Fei; Zhang, Chunfeng; Yang, Zhonglin. 2012. "Hesperidin Prevents Retinal and Plasma Abnormalities in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats." Molecules 17, no. 11: 12868-12881.