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Molecules 2012, 17(1), 674-687; doi:10.3390/molecules17010674

Gamma Irradiation Increases the Antioxidant Properties of Tualang Honey Stored Under Different Conditions

1
Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
2
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka-1342, Bangladesh
3
Department of Botany, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205, Bangladesh
4
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia
5
National Poison Center, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia
6
Research Dean, Biomedical & Health Sciences Platform, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
7
Human Genome Centre, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 December 2011 / Revised: 5 January 2012 / Accepted: 8 January 2012 / Published: 11 January 2012
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Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of evaporation, gamma irradiation and temperature on the total polyphenols, flavonoids and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activities of Tualang honey samples (n = 14) following storage over three, six or twelve months. The mean polyphenol concentrations of the six gamma irradiated honey samples at three, six and twelve months, respectively, were 96.13%, 98.01% and 102.03% higher than the corresponding values of the eight non-gamma irradiated samples. Similarly, the mean values for flavonoids at three, six and twelve months were 111.52%, 114.81% and 110.04% higher, respectively, for the gamma irradiated samples. The mean values for DPPH radical-scavenging activities at three, six and twelve months were also 67.09%, 65.26% and 44.65% higher, respectively, for the gamma irradiated samples. These data indicate that all gamma irradiated honey samples had higher antioxidant potential following gamma irradiation, while evaporation and temperature had minor effects on antioxidant potential.
Keywords: Tualang honey; gamma irradiation; storage effects; polyphenols; radical-scavenging activities Tualang honey; gamma irradiation; storage effects; polyphenols; radical-scavenging activities
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Khalil, M.I.; Sulaiman, S.A.; Alam, N.; Moniruzzaman, M.; Bai’e, S.; Man, C.N.; Jamalullail, S.M.S.; Gan, S.H. Gamma Irradiation Increases the Antioxidant Properties of Tualang Honey Stored Under Different Conditions. Molecules 2012, 17, 674-687.

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