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Chemical Profile of the Organic Residue from Ancient Amphora Found in the Adriatic Sea Determined by Direct GC and GC-MS Analysis
Faculty of Chemistry and Technology, University of Split, N. Tesle 10/V, 21000 Split, Croatia
University of Applied Sciences Marko Marulić in Knin, P. Krešimira IV 30, 22300 Knin, Croatia
Department of Organic Chemistry, Laboratory for Stereoselective Catalysis and Biocatalysis, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 August 2011; in revised form: 7 September 2011 / Accepted: 7 September 2011 / Published: 14 September 2011
Abstract: An ancient organic residue was collected from the bottom of a Greco-Italian amphora found in the Adriatic Sea and investigated by direct GC and GC-MS analysis. The headspace composition was determined by HS-SPME using: (1) DVB/CAR/PDMS and (2) PDMS/DVB fibres. Higher percentages of benzene derivatives, monoterpenes and other low-molecular aliphatic compounds were obtained by method (1) in contrast to higher percentage of naphthalene and phenanthrene derivatives found by method (2). In comparison with the composition of pine resin, it is more likely that the found low-molecular aliphatic alcohols, acids, esters and carbonyls with 2-phenylethanol were trapped and preserved within the organic residue from stored wine – the amphora’s originally content. Semi-volatile diterpenes methyl dehydroabietate (33.6%) and retene (24.1%) were dominant in the residue CH2Cl2 solution. Other abundant compounds were 1,4-dimethoxyphenanthrene (6.8%) as well as other naphthalene and/or phenanthrene derivatives [7-(1-methylethyl)-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydronaphthalene, 7-(1-methylethyl)-1,4a-dimethyl-2,3,4,4a,9,10-hexahydrophenanthrene, 7-(1-methylethyl)-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydro-phenanthrene, 3,6-dimethylphenanthrene and 2,3,5-trimethylphenanthrene]. Possible sources and formation pathways of the major compounds in the residue were discussed.
Keywords: amphora organic residue; HS-SPME; GC-MS; methyl dehydroabietate; retene
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Jerković, I.; Marijanović, Z.; Gugić, M.; Roje, M. Chemical Profile of the Organic Residue from Ancient Amphora Found in the Adriatic Sea Determined by Direct GC and GC-MS Analysis. Molecules 2011, 16, 7936-7948.
Jerković I, Marijanović Z, Gugić M, Roje M. Chemical Profile of the Organic Residue from Ancient Amphora Found in the Adriatic Sea Determined by Direct GC and GC-MS Analysis. Molecules. 2011; 16(9):7936-7948.
Jerković, Igor; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Gugić, Mirko; Roje, Marin. 2011. "Chemical Profile of the Organic Residue from Ancient Amphora Found in the Adriatic Sea Determined by Direct GC and GC-MS Analysis." Molecules 16, no. 9: 7936-7948.