Next Article in Journal
Synthesis, Characterization and Fluorescent Property Evaluation of 1,3,5-Triaryl-2-pyrazolines
Previous Article in Journal
Physicochemical Properties, in Vitro Antioxidant Activities and Inhibitory Potential against α-Glucosidase of Polysaccharides from Ampelopsis grossedentata Leaves and Stems
Molecules 2011, 16(9), 7773-7788; doi:10.3390/molecules16097773

Chemical, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Investigations of Pinus cembra L. Bark and Needles

Received: 4 August 2011 / Revised: 4 September 2011 / Accepted: 8 September 2011 / Published: 13 September 2011
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
Download PDF [448 KB, uploaded 18 June 2014]


The chemical constituents and biological activity of Pinus cembra L. (Pinaceae), native to the Central European Alps and the Carpathian Mountains, are not well known. The aim of the present work was to examine the phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of hydromethanolic extracts of Pinus cembra L. bark and needles. Bark extract had higher concentrations of total phenolics (299.3 vs. 78.22 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract), flavonoids (125.3 vs. 19.84 mg catechin equivalents/g extract) and proanthocyanidins (74.3 vs. 12.7 mg cyanidin equivalents/g extract) than needle extract and was more active as a free radical scavenger, reducing agent and antimicrobial agent. The EC50 values in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and reducing power assays were 71.1, 6.3 and 26 mg/mL for bark extract and 186.1, 24 and 104 mg/mL for needle extract, respectively. In addition, needle extract showed ferrous ions chelating effects (EC50 = 1,755 μg/mL). The antimicrobial effects against Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans were assessed by the agar diffusion method. Both extracts (4 mg/well) were active against all the microorganisms tested; bark extract showed higher inhibition on all strains. These results indicate that Pinus cembra L. bark and needles are good sources of phytochemicals with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.
Keywords: Pinus cembra L.; polyphenols; antioxidant activity; antimicrobial activity Pinus cembra L.; polyphenols; antioxidant activity; antimicrobial activity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
MDPI and ACS Style

Apetrei, C.L.; Tuchilus, C.; Aprotosoaie, A.C.; Oprea, A.; Malterud, K.E.; Miron, A. Chemical, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Investigations of Pinus cembra L. Bark and Needles. Molecules 2011, 16, 7773-7788.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


Cited By

[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert