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Antihyperglycemic Effect of Orthosiphon Stamineus Benth Leaves Extract and Its Bioassay-Guided Fractions
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Penang, Malaysia
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 February 2011; in revised form: 30 March 2011 / Accepted: 15 April 2011 / Published: 4 May 2011
Abstract: Preliminary investigations were carried out to evaluate the antidiabetic effects of the leaves of O. stamineus extracted serially with solvents of increasing polarity (petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water); bioassay-guided purification of plant extracts using the subcutaneous glucose tolerance test (SbGTT) was also carried out. Only the chloroform extract, given at 1 g/kg body weight (b.w.), significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the blood glucose level of rats loaded subcutaneously with 150 mg/kg (b.w.) glucose. The active chloroform extract of O. stamineus was separated into five fractions using a dry flash column chromatography method. Out of the five fractions tested, only chloroform fraction 2 (Cƒ2), at the dose of 1 g/kg (b.w.) significantly inhibited (P < 0.05) blood glucose levels in SbGTT. Active Cƒ2 was split into two sub-fractions Cƒ2-A and Cƒ2-B, using a dry flash column chromatography method. The activities Cƒ2-A and Cƒ2-B were investigated using SbGTT, and the active sub-fraction was then further studied for anti-diabetic effects in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model. The results clearly indicate that Cƒ2-B fraction exhibited a blood glucose lowering effect in fasted treated normal rats after glucose-loading of 150 mg/kg (b.w.). In the acute streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model, Cƒ2-B did not exhibit a hypoglycemic effect on blood glucose levels up to 7 hours after treatment. Thus, it appears that Cƒ2-B functions similarly to metformin, which has no hypoglycemic effect but demonstrates an antihyperglycemic effect only in normogycemic models. The effect of Cƒ2-B may have no direct stimulatory effects on insulin secretion or on blood glucose levels in diabetic animal models. Verification of the active compound(s) within the active fraction (Cƒ2-B) indicated the presence of terpenoids and, flavonoids, including sinensitin.
Keywords: Orthosiphon stamineus; antihyperglycemic; hypoglycemic
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Mohamed, E.A.H.; Mohamed, A.J.; Asmawi, M.Z.; Sadikun, A.; Ebrika, O.S.; Yam, M.F. Antihyperglycemic Effect of Orthosiphon Stamineus Benth Leaves Extract and Its Bioassay-Guided Fractions. Molecules 2011, 16, 3787-3801.
Mohamed EAH, Mohamed AJ, Asmawi MZ, Sadikun A, Ebrika OS, Yam MF. Antihyperglycemic Effect of Orthosiphon Stamineus Benth Leaves Extract and Its Bioassay-Guided Fractions. Molecules. 2011; 16(5):3787-3801.
Mohamed, Elsnoussi Ali Hussin; Mohamed, Ali Jimale; Asmawi, Mohd. Zaini; Sadikun, Amirin; Ebrika, Omar Saad; Yam, Mun Fei. 2011. "Antihyperglycemic Effect of Orthosiphon Stamineus Benth Leaves Extract and Its Bioassay-Guided Fractions." Molecules 16, no. 5: 3787-3801.