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Molecules 2011, 16(4), 3338-3344; doi:10.3390/molecules16043338
Article

Kaempferol and Kaempferol Rhamnosides with Depigmenting and Anti-Inflammatory Properties

1,* , 2, 2, 3, 4, 4, 2 and 5,*
Received: 24 March 2011 / Revised: 14 April 2011 / Accepted: 15 April 2011 / Published: 18 April 2011
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Abstract

The objective of this study was to examine the biological activity of kaempferol and its rhamnosides. We isolated kaempferol (1), a-rhamnoisorobin (2), afzelin (3), and kaempferitrin (4) as pure compounds by far-infrared (FIR) irradiation of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) leaves. The depigmenting and anti-inflammatory activity of the compounds was evaluated by analyzing their structure-activity relationships. The order of the inhibitory activity with regard to depigmentation and nitric oxide (NO) production was kaempferol (1) > a-rhamnoisorobin (2) > afzelin (3) > kaempferitrin (4). However, a-rhamnoisorobin (2) was more potent than kaempferol (1) in NF-kB-mediated luciferase assays. From these results, we conclude that the 3-hydroxyl group of kaempferol is an important pharmacophore and that additional rhamnose moieties affect the biological activity negatively.
Keywords: kaempferol; rhamnoside; depigmentation; anti-inflammation kaempferol; rhamnoside; depigmentation; anti-inflammation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Rho, H.S.; Ghimeray, A.K.; Yoo, D.S.; Ahn, S.M.; Kwon, S.S.; Lee, K.H.; Cho, D.H.; Cho, J.Y. Kaempferol and Kaempferol Rhamnosides with Depigmenting and Anti-Inflammatory Properties. Molecules 2011, 16, 3338-3344.

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