Molecules 2011, 16(4), 3338-3344; doi:10.3390/molecules16043338
Article

Kaempferol and Kaempferol Rhamnosides with Depigmenting and Anti-Inflammatory Properties

Received: 24 March 2011; in revised form: 14 April 2011 / Accepted: 15 April 2011 / Published: 18 April 2011
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to examine the biological activity of kaempferol and its rhamnosides. We isolated kaempferol (1), a-rhamnoisorobin (2), afzelin (3), and kaempferitrin (4) as pure compounds by far-infrared (FIR) irradiation of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) leaves. The depigmenting and anti-inflammatory activity of the compounds was evaluated by analyzing their structure-activity relationships. The order of the inhibitory activity with regard to depigmentation and nitric oxide (NO) production was kaempferol (1) > a-rhamnoisorobin (2) > afzelin (3) > kaempferitrin (4). However, a-rhamnoisorobin (2) was more potent than kaempferol (1) in NF-kB-mediated luciferase assays. From these results, we conclude that the 3-hydroxyl group of kaempferol is an important pharmacophore and that additional rhamnose moieties affect the biological activity negatively.
Keywords: kaempferol; rhamnoside; depigmentation; anti-inflammation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rho, H.S.; Ghimeray, A.K.; Yoo, D.S.; Ahn, S.M.; Kwon, S.S.; Lee, K.H.; Cho, D.H.; Cho, J.Y. Kaempferol and Kaempferol Rhamnosides with Depigmenting and Anti-Inflammatory Properties. Molecules 2011, 16, 3338-3344.

AMA Style

Rho HS, Ghimeray AK, Yoo DS, Ahn SM, Kwon SS, Lee KH, Cho DH, Cho JY. Kaempferol and Kaempferol Rhamnosides with Depigmenting and Anti-Inflammatory Properties. Molecules. 2011; 16(4):3338-3344.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rho, Ho Sik; Ghimeray, Amal Kumar; Yoo, Dae Sung; Ahn, Soo Mi; Kwon, Sun Sang; Lee, Keun Ha; Cho, Dong Ha; Cho, Jae Youl. 2011. "Kaempferol and Kaempferol Rhamnosides with Depigmenting and Anti-Inflammatory Properties." Molecules 16, no. 4: 3338-3344.

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