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Molecules 2011, 16(4), 3338-3344; doi:10.3390/molecules16043338
Article

Kaempferol and Kaempferol Rhamnosides with Depigmenting and Anti-Inflammatory Properties

1,* , 2, 2, 3, 4, 4, 2 and 5,*
1 R & D Center, AmorePacific Corporation, Yongin, Korea 2 College of Biomedical Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Korea 3 Skin Biotechnology Center, Kyung Hee University, Suwon, Korea 4 R & D Center, Morechem Corporation, Seoul, Korea 5 Department of Genetic Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Korea
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 March 2011 / Revised: 14 April 2011 / Accepted: 15 April 2011 / Published: 18 April 2011
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Abstract

The objective of this study was to examine the biological activity of kaempferol and its rhamnosides. We isolated kaempferol (1), a-rhamnoisorobin (2), afzelin (3), and kaempferitrin (4) as pure compounds by far-infrared (FIR) irradiation of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) leaves. The depigmenting and anti-inflammatory activity of the compounds was evaluated by analyzing their structure-activity relationships. The order of the inhibitory activity with regard to depigmentation and nitric oxide (NO) production was kaempferol (1) > a-rhamnoisorobin (2) > afzelin (3) > kaempferitrin (4). However, a-rhamnoisorobin (2) was more potent than kaempferol (1) in NF-kB-mediated luciferase assays. From these results, we conclude that the 3-hydroxyl group of kaempferol is an important pharmacophore and that additional rhamnose moieties affect the biological activity negatively.
Keywords: kaempferol; rhamnoside; depigmentation; anti-inflammation kaempferol; rhamnoside; depigmentation; anti-inflammation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Rho, H.S.; Ghimeray, A.K.; Yoo, D.S.; Ahn, S.M.; Kwon, S.S.; Lee, K.H.; Cho, D.H.; Cho, J.Y. Kaempferol and Kaempferol Rhamnosides with Depigmenting and Anti-Inflammatory Properties. Molecules 2011, 16, 3338-3344.

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