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In-Vitro Antibacterial Properties of Crude Aqueous and n-Hexane Extracts of the Husk of Cocos nucifera
Applied and Environmental Microbiology Research Group (AEMREG), Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, P/Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa
Department of Chemistry, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa
Department of Microbiology Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife 220005, Nigeria
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 February 2011; in revised form: 24 February 2011 / Accepted: 28 February 2011 / Published: 3 March 2011
Abstract: The increasing numbers of cases of antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria such as Vibrio species poses a major problem to the food and aquaculture industries, as most antibiotics are no longer effective in controlling pathogenic bacteria affecting these industries. Therefore, this study was carried out to assess the antibacterial potentials of crude aqueous and n-hexane extracts of the husk of Cocos nucifera against some selected Vibrio species and other bacterial pathogens including those normally implicated in food and wound infections. The crude extracts were screened against forty-five strains of Vibrio pathogens and twenty-five other bacteria isolates made up of ten Gram positive and fifteen Gram negative bacteria. The aqueous extract was active against 17 of the tested bacterial and 37 of the Vibrio isolates; while the n-hexane extract showed antimicrobial activity against 21 of the test bacteria and 38 of the test Vibrio species. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the aqueous and n-hexane extracts against the susceptible bacteria ranged between 0.6–5.0 mg/mL and 0.3–5.0 mg/mL respectively, while the time kill study result for the aqueous extract ranged between 0.12 Log10 and 4.2 Log10 cfu/mL after 8 hours interaction in 1 × MIC and 2 × MIC. For the n-hexane extract, the log reduction ranged between 0.56 Log10 and 6.4 Log10 cfu/mL after 8 hours interaction in 1 × MIC and 2 × MIC. This study revealed the huge potential of C. nucifera extracts as alternative therapies against microbial infections.
Keywords: C. nucifera; Vibrio specie; antibacterial; n-hexane extract; aqueous extract
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Akinyele, T.A.; Okoh, O.O.; Akinpelu, D.A.; Okoh, A.I. In-Vitro Antibacterial Properties of Crude Aqueous and n-Hexane Extracts of the Husk of Cocos nucifera. Molecules 2011, 16, 2135-2145.
Akinyele TA, Okoh OO, Akinpelu DA, Okoh AI. In-Vitro Antibacterial Properties of Crude Aqueous and n-Hexane Extracts of the Husk of Cocos nucifera. Molecules. 2011; 16(3):2135-2145.
Akinyele, Taiwo Adesola; Okoh, Omobola Oluranti; Akinpelu, David Ayinde; Okoh, Anthony Ifeanyi. 2011. "In-Vitro Antibacterial Properties of Crude Aqueous and n-Hexane Extracts of the Husk of Cocos nucifera." Molecules 16, no. 3: 2135-2145.